On 4 February 1922, Harry Price with James Seymour, Eric Dingwall and William S. Marriott had proven the spirit photographer William Hope was a fraud during tests at the British College of Psychic Science. Price wrote in his SPR report "William Hope has been found guilty of deliberately substituting his own plates for those of a sitter... It implies that the medium brings to the sitting a duplicate slide and faked plates for fraudulent purposes." The medium Kathleen Goligher was investigated by the physicist Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe. On July 22, 1921 in a séance he observed Goligher holding the table up with her foot. He also discovered that her ectoplasm was made of muslin. During a séance d'Albe observed white muslin between Goligher's feet.
Spiritualists believe that phenomena produced by mediums (both mental and physical mediumship) are the result of external spirit agencies. The psychical researcher Thomson Jay Hudson in The Law of Psychic Phenomena (1892) and Théodore Flournoy in his book Spiritism and Psychology (1911) wrote that all kinds of mediumship could be explained by suggestion and telepathy from the medium and that there was no evidence for the spirit hypothesis. The idea of mediumship being explained by telepathy was later merged into the "super-ESP" hypothesis of mediumship which is currently advocated by some parapsychologists.
In contrast to most oracle decks, which don’t include suited pip cards, Lenormand cards feature a unique combination of numbered playing-card imagery on top of illustrated scenes used for fortune-telling. “One of the earliest versions, called the Game of Hope, was made by a German named J.K. Hechtel and was prepared like a board game,” says Matthews. “You laid out cards 1 to 36, and the object of the game was to throw the dice and move your tokens along it. If you got to card 35, which was the anchor card, then you’re home, safe and dry. But if you went beyond that, it was the cross, which was not so good. It was like the game Snakes and Ladders.” In this way, the Game of Hope fell into the Victorian-era tradition of board games that determined a player’s life story based on luck.
An online reading takes place via Skype or similar video link. It is carried out in real time, and you will pay up-front when booking the session. It is similar to a telephone reading but with two-way visual contact. It is much more like an in-person consultation. A good medium will try to put you at ease and connect with you on a personal level as it makes it more rewarding for both parties.
The poet Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth attended a séance on 23, July 1855 in Ealing with the Rymers. During the séance a spirit face materialized which Home claimed was the son of Browning who had died in infancy. Browning seized the "materialization" and discovered it to be the bare foot of Home. To make the deception worse, Browning had never lost a son in infancy. Browning's son Robert in a letter to The Times, December 5, 1902 referred to the incident "Home was detected in a vulgar fraud." The researchers Joseph McCabe and Trevor H. Hall exposed the "levitation" of Home as nothing more than his moving across a connecting ledge between two iron balconies.
Even the greatest amount of spiritual reading would amount to a waste of time if it did not affect our souls. How do we make it stick in our spiritual life? First, we should keep Padre Pio’s advice: ask for the assistance of the Holy Spirit, and what God wants to communicate to us in that particular book. Another way to do this is by journaling. Writing down thoughts or insights helps us process new information, as well as helping us remember it. If it’s easier to type than write, one might try starting a blog. Anyone can do it, and there are many free sites available.
Magicians have a long history of exposing the fraudulent methods of mediumship. Early debunkers included Chung Ling Soo, Henry Evans and Julien Proskauer. Later magicians to reveal fraud were Joseph Dunninger, Harry Houdini and Joseph Rinn. Rose Mackenberg, a private investigator who worked with Houdini during the 1920s, was among the most prominent debunkers of psychic fraud during the mid-20th century.
Psychometry can be used to initiate and strengthen contact with spirit. This is where the energy of a person has been transferred onto a personal possession such as a hat or a pipe for smoking. Holding the object causes the energy signature of the previous owner to be effectively broadcast out into the universe (distance in not a factor in spiritual dimensions), strengthening contact by aligning the energy vibrations.
A medium that has been screened over several months by the University of Arizona's VERITAS Research Program, and has agreed to uphold a code of spiritual ethics as well as hold a strong commitment to the values of scientific mediumship research. An Integrative Research Medium has undergone several stages of questionnaires, interviews, and tests; participated in training in grief psychology, afterlife science, and human subjects research; and demonstrated a strong ability to report accurate and specific information during double-blinded test readings. In January of 2008, Joanne was invited to continue to participate as a Certified Research Medium in the new mediumship research program, under the direction of Dr. Julie Beischel at the Windbridge Institute for Applied Research in Human Potential.
Some people ask if I, much like a doctor, chose this specialty as my service. On a basic human level, the answer is no...it chose me. On a soul level, though, I am certain this is what I signed up to do in this lifetime. My responsibility lies in simply acknowledging my "gift" and what comes naturally for me, and embracing the calling to serve as a messenger for Spirit.