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The spirit photographer William Hope tricked William Crookes with a fake spirit photograph of his wife in 1906. Oliver Lodge revealed there had been obvious signs of double exposure, the picture of Lady Crookes had been copied from a wedding anniversary photograph, however, Crookes was a convinced spiritualist and claimed it was genuine evidence for spirit photography.[106]
Everyone knows the great influence that is exerted by the voice of a friend who gives candid advice, assists by his counsel, corrects, encourages and leads one away from error. Blessed is the man who has found a true friend; he that has found him has found a treasure. We should, then, count pious books among our true friends. They solemnly remind us of our duties and of the prescriptions of legitimate discipline; they arouse the heavenly voices that were stifled in our souls; they rid our resolutions of listlessness; they disturb our deceitful complacency; they show the true nature of less worthy affections to which we have sought to close our eyes; they bring to light the many dangers which beset the path of the imprudent. They render all these services with such kindly discretion that they prove themselves to be not only our friends, but the very best of friends. They are always at hand, constantly beside us to assist us in the needs of our souls; their voice is never harsh, their advice is never self-seeking, their words are never timid or deceitful.
In all cases you should explain your motives clearly to the psychic, clairvoyant, spiritual guide or medium you are consulting. Spiritual readings are generally more interactive than psychic readings since they offer better insights about your inner self. A good spiritual reader will encourage users to ask questions and to question themselves so that they could experience the reading on a more personal level.
For the less experienced mediums, exactly the opposite was observed--increased levels of activity in the same frontal areas during psychography compared to normal writing, and the difference was significant compared to the experienced mediums. What this probably means is that the less experienced mediums were trying really hard. The force is not yet strong with them.
Through Guided Imagery, Meditation, Theta and Delta wave pattern healing, and Spiritual Guidance, I assist souls to awareness of where these energetic cyclical patterns origination is and how to transform it within this dimension and within all of their life experiences in all dimensions, so that one can remember, embrace, and treasure the all inclusive inner wisdom of our soul and of our Soul Life Purpose for this Life Experience clearing the pathway to the love and light you are.
Michael Shermer criticized mediums in Scientific American, saying, "mediums are unethical and dangerous: they prey on the emotions of the grieving. As grief counselors know, death is best faced head-on as a part of life." Shermer wrote that the human urge to seek connections between events that may form patterns meaningful for survival is a function of natural evolution, and called the alleged ability of mediums to talk to the dead "a well-known illusion of a meaningful pattern."[201]

wow, this is amazing. I have learnt a lot from reading this, I am a Pyschic Medium and I am trying to develop more. You have written a very inspiration blog and i am saving this page as a favourites of mine to always reflect on. You have a kind and calming nature to all around you. I can certainly relate to most of the messages, and I know understand that It isn’t about me, and i love the quote ” I define my job as giving a voice to those in spirit”. Thank you.

Read slowly and with attention. "'Nourish your soul,' says St. Augustine, 'with divine lectures.'" To be nourished, he said, one must chew and well and ponder well, and apply the teachings to oneself. "And when what you have read has made a lively impression on you, St. Ephrem counsels you to read it a second time...Besides, when you receive any special light in reading, or any instruction that penetrates the heart, it will be very useful to stop, and to raise the mind to God by making a good resolution, or a good act, or a fervent prayer. St. Bernard says, that it is useful then to interrupt the reading, and to offer a prayer, and to continue to pray as long as the lively impression lasts."
Of course, they don’t just visit when the going gets tough. By the same token, I often receive evidence that spirits were there to see their children get married, or witness the birth of a baby or a daughter’s graduation. Holidays and special occasions are also big for them — they want to see us happy and like to take part in that joy. After all, if they were here physically, it goes without saying that they’d be present at these important events. Being in spirit doesn’t change the fact that they’re still our family and still care about us.

The medium Frank Decker was exposed as a fraud in 1932. A magician and séance sitter who called himself M. Taylor presented a mail bag and Decker agreed to lock himself inside it. During the séance objects were moved around the room and it was claimed spirits had released Decker from the bag. It was later discovered to have been a trick as Martin Sunshine, a magic dealer admitted that he sold Decker a trick mail bag, such as stage escapologists use, and had acted as the medium's confederate by pretending to be M. Taylor, a magician.[155] The British medium Estelle Roberts claimed to materialize an Indian spirit guide called "Red Cloud". Researcher Melvin Harris who examined some photographs of Red Cloud wrote the face was the same as Roberts and she had dressed up in a feathered war-bonnet.[156]
Many spiritual works exhort us to form the “human”; that is, to become the best version of ourselves.  To form the spiritual side of us is to draw us deeper into communion with Our Lord.  The intellectual aspect is important; we have to know what we believe.  It is not opposed to the spiritual side; why would God have given humans such a remarkable intellect if He didn’t intend for us to use it?  Lastly, I’d change “pastoral” to “vocational” for those of us among the laity.  Vocational books on being a parent, spouse, father, mother, etc. have been coming up more and more.
Magicians have a long history of exposing the fraudulent methods of mediumship. Early debunkers included Chung Ling Soo, Henry Evans and Julien Proskauer.[59] Later magicians to reveal fraud were Joseph Dunninger, Harry Houdini and Joseph Rinn. Rose Mackenberg, a private investigator who worked with Houdini during the 1920s, was among the most prominent debunkers of psychic fraud during the mid-20th century.[60]
Even the greatest amount of spiritual reading would amount to a waste of time if it did not affect our souls.  How do we make it stick in our spiritual life?  First, we should keep Padre Pio’s advice: ask for the assistance of the Holy Spirit, and what God wants to communicate to us in that particular book.  Another way to do this is by journaling.  Writing down thoughts or insights helps us process new information, as well as helping us remember it.  If it’s easier to type than write, one might try starting a blog.  Anyone can do it, and there are many free sites available.
If you are considering consulting a psychic medium, check the company’s credentials on its website and look for negative reports or criticism through watchdog organizations. You might want to check with the Better Business Bureau also. A psychic medium reading conducted over the phone can be very frustrating if the medium really isn’t psychic and you aren’t getting reliable answers to your questions.
No doubt a great importance in the paranormal field is the problem of fraud. The field of psychic research and spiritualism has been so notoriously full of charlatans, such as the Fox sisters and Eusapia Palladino–individuals who claim to have special power and gifts but who are actually conjurers who have hoodwinked scientists and the public as well–that we have to be especially cautious about claims made on their behalf.[58]
Matthews’ favorite decks are those with straightforward illustrations, like the Tarocchino Bolognese by Giuseppe Maria Mitelli, an Italian deck created sometime around the 1660s. Matthews owns a facsimile of the Mitelli deck, rather than an original, which means she can use them without fear of damaging a priceless antique. “The deck that I enjoy most is the Mertz Lenormand deck because of its clarity,” she says. “The background on each card is a creamy, vellum color, so when you lay them out in tableau, you can see the illustrations very clearly. I frankly get so tired of all the new Photoshopped tarots and the slick art, with their complete lack of any framework or substance.
In 1930 the Polish medium Stanisława P. was tested at the Institut Metapsychique in Paris. French psychical researcher Eugéne Osty suspected in the séance that Stanislawa had freed her hand from control. Secret flashlight photographs that were taken revealed that her hand was free and she had moved objects on the séance table.[146] It was claimed by spiritualists that during a series of séances in 1930 the medium Eileen J. Garrett channeled secret information from the spirit of the Lieutenant Herbert Carmichael Irwin who had died in the R101 crash a few days before the séance. Researcher Melvin Harris who studied the case wrote that the information described in Garrett's séances were "either commonplace, easily absorbed bits and pieces, or plain gobblede-gook. The so-called secret information just doesn't exist."[147]

This is the last in the five-volume series of autobiographical novels called "The Children of Violence," which trace the life story of Martha Quest. The first four books portray Martha's youth and young womanhood among the English settlers in colonial, racially divided British Rhodesia. In this book, Martha leaves Africa and is living in postwar London, a bombed-out city where the walls of buildings are not the only boundaries that have come down. The line between good and evil was much clearer under the African sun; here Martha enters a world where such distinctions are lost at a dizzying pace. Her friend Lynda undergoes a personal breakdown, prefiguring Martha's own dissolution. Lessing's genius is to see that this time of social fragmentation and personal disorder can be welcomed as the prelude to a spiritual rebirth. This book moves from politics toward spirituality and reflects Lessing's honesty and concern.
Senses used by mental mediums are sometimes defined differently from in other paranormal fields. A medium is said to have psychic abilities but not all psychics function as mediums. The term clairvoyance, for instance, may include seeing spirit and visions instilled by the spirit world. The Parapsychological Association defines "clairvoyance" as information derived directly from an external physical source.[37]
A series of mediumistic séances known as the Scole Experiment took place between 1993 and 1998 in the presence of the researchers David Fontana, Arthur Ellison and Montague Keen. This has produced photographs, audio recordings and physical objects which appeared in the dark séance room (known as apports).[185] A criticism of the experiment was that it was flawed because it did not rule out the possibility of fraud. The skeptical investigator Brian Dunning wrote the Scole experiments fail in many ways. The séances were held in the basement of two of the mediums, only total darkness was allowed with no night vision apparatus as it might "frighten the spirits away". The box containing the film was not examined and could easily have been accessible to fraud. And finally, even though many years have passed, there has been no follow-up, no further research by any credible agency or published accounts.[185]

I somehow got convinced to have a psychic reading with Adriana on Newbury St. I was walking down the road minding my own business and she pulled me aside and said something like, "You're at a crossroads and I see something about career in your future." Well, that's pretty non-specific, but I was intrigued because I've been plagued by work issues and feeling like I need to make a change.
Through Guided Imagery, Meditation, Theta and Delta wave pattern healing, and Spiritual Guidance, I assist souls to awareness of where these energetic cyclical patterns origination is and how to transform it within this dimension and within all of their life experiences in all dimensions, so that one can remember, embrace, and treasure the all inclusive inner wisdom of our soul and of our Soul Life Purpose for this Life Experience clearing the pathway to the love and light you are.
Can these email readings and healings work via physically long distances?  Yes, there is a spiritual energy that transcends human physical form when tapping into another soul for a reading or a healing. Energy and it’s effects are beyond that of what we call here on this earth as time and space. Energy is simply energy and its resonance can be felt and experienced at any moment we so choose to be “in tuned” to it. It is free from being what we perceive as ‘difficult’ at all. I simply meditate upon your soul energy tapping into it in meditation, getting in touch with you and your spirit guides on a soulful resonance, and then I will channel write whatever it is that your soul and your spirit guides have to gift you with their messages. Then when I come out of channeling the messages, I usually check them for grammar and spelling so that the messages make sense and then send it to you via email here. Thus I can provide this to you or to any soul around the globe. Within the spirit and the soul, distance is free from being a factor as we can connect free from being within each other's physical presence:)  
This is an organized event that can take place in an auditorium, church or even a TV studio. Participants are picked out from the audience randomly, and the spiritualist or medium passes messages, either directly from the spiritual realm or via his or her personal spirit guide. It’s a good way to see how it all works, but you are playing a numbers game as the chances of you receiving a message are remote.
Teacher and publisher Jean-Baptiste Alliette wrote his first book on the tarot in 1791, called “Etteilla, ou L’art de lire dans les cartes,” meaning “Etteilla, or the Art of Reading Cards.” (Alliette created this mystical pseudonym “Etteilla” simply by reversing his surname.) According to Etteilla’s writings, he first learned divination with a deck of 32 cards designed for a game called Piquet, along with the addition of his special Etteilla card. This type of card is known as the significator and typically stands in for the individual having their fortune read.
At some point, during one’s spiritual path, a conscious effort must be made to clear out the old karmic debts that still exist within our energetic field. In addition, the awakened individual will at some point begin to understand how they have created the negative karma and will learn how to stop creating anymore. If you can fully grasp the concept that you have lived numerous times before this one and that in order for you to even be looking at spiritual guidance as an option in your life right now, you will understand that you have had to experience many negative and probably despicable acts, both as the perpetrator and the victim. We cannot know the beauty and joy of our connection to the Divine without first knowing the opposite — Purgatory/Hell. If you can accept that you were once a bad person, capable of some of the worse acts of mankind, then you can learn to accept some of the negative stages of growth that you must go through in order to clear some of your karmic debts. The best way to get through these situations is to accept that you have responsibility for creating the negative situation you are currently involved in, maybe you are not conscious of the past events that led to the karmic debt, but learn to trust in the divine principles of the Universe.
Illusionists, such as Joseph Rinn have staged 'fake' séances in which the sitters have claimed to have observed genuine supernatural phenomena.[44] Albert Moll studied the psychology of séance sitters. According to (Wolffram, 2012) "[Moll] argued that the hypnotic atmosphere of the darkened séance room and the suggestive effect of the experimenters' social and scientific prestige could be used to explain why seemingly rational people vouchsafed occult phenomena."[45] The psychologists Leonard Zusne and Warren Jones in their book Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking (1989) wrote that spirits controls are the "products of the medium's own psychological dynamics."[46]
Spiritual Guidance can confirm information that an individual may be receiving from their own Higher Self, but because they may not be totally connected or emotionally involved, they are unable to really allow that information to be perceived or understood as a clear truth. A spiritual guide that points toward the same information can then delve deeper into the situations that may be surrounding the issues of why a person may not be able to totally trust the guidance received. Even those who would consider themselves advanced on the spiritual path, still from time to time, need a little outside confirmation from another connected being to see if their information is coming through clearly. This added confirmation from an outside source can sometimes be just the encouragement someone needs in taking that next step. Spiritual readings are more interactive and encourages the person being read to participate in the learning process. It is not a process where you should try to test your reader by giving incorrect information or trying to be vague. It should be considered counseling or therapy which involves a two-way interaction. The other difference that may be experienced between these two types of guidance is that spiritual guidance can, at times, be harsh and more direct. The goal is to help the person evolve to a higher level and sometimes the person needs to take responsibility for the situations that are currently being experienced. It can awaken dormant emotions, which can be very painful or can also release waves of anger. These emotions, if processed appropriately, can be used to initiate a healing process in an area that was once considered a block. If one is sincerely following a spiritual path, then they must take responsibility for the good and the bad that is occurring in their life. Not to mention some of the negative scenarios that they may have committed in a past lifetime.

St. Augustine of Hippo, considered one of the greatest Fathers of the Church, converted to the Catholic Church upon hearing a boy tell him" "Take, read; take, read." He recounted that "I took (the epistles of Paul the Apostle), I opened, I read in silence; it was as though the darkness of all my doubting was driven away by the light of peace which had entered my soul."

The poet Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth attended a séance on 23, July 1855 in Ealing with the Rymers.[64] During the séance a spirit face materialized which Home claimed was the son of Browning who had died in infancy. Browning seized the "materialization" and discovered it to be the bare foot of Home. To make the deception worse, Browning had never lost a son in infancy. Browning's son Robert in a letter to The Times, December 5, 1902 referred to the incident "Home was detected in a vulgar fraud."[65][66] The researchers Joseph McCabe and Trevor H. Hall exposed the "levitation" of Home as nothing more than his moving across a connecting ledge between two iron balconies.[67]

So once again, it’s our bereavement or guilt that prevents us from moving on. Rest assured, they’re neither angry nor upset. It may just take a little time before you can even think about meeting someone else, and when you do, that person will never replace the one you loved before. It will be a new experience and a different kind of love; a love they want you to have.


The Tarocco Siciliano is the only deck to use the so-called Portuguese suit system which uses Spanish pips but intersects them like Italian pips.[13] Some of the trumps are different such as the lowest trump, Miseria (destitution). It omits the Two and Three of coins, and numerals one to four in clubs, swords and cups: it thus has 64 cards but the ace of coins is not used, being the bearer of the former stamp tax. The cards are quite small and not reversible.[9]
An online reading takes place via Skype or similar video link. It is carried out in real time, and you will pay up-front when booking the session. It is similar to a telephone reading but with two-way visual contact. It is much more like an in-person consultation. A good medium will try to put you at ease and connect with you on a personal level as it makes it more rewarding for both parties.
I got a psychic slap the morning of/before the Dallas police shooting. “El Centro” , the words, came into my head. No sound, no vision, etc. I knew of the school 30+ years ago when my boyfriend, who passed, attended a few seminars. I ran through my head a series questions but nothing made sense. Later that night on tv i heard the gunman was holed up there. I couldn’t breathe. This was my wake up.
A Spiritual Reading is a session in which we connect with your energy and channel information that may come from our Spirit guides, Angels, or helper souls. We can also connect to your Akashic Record, which is comparable to the “Library of Your Soul.” It includes all of your lives – past, present, and future. We can connect and find out what your soul purpose is in this life, we can see which souls traveled with you to this life those that have accompanied you in other lives (soul mates), and we can ask if there is anything that can help you on your path to overcome and understand the lessons you chose to face in this life.
It’s not something that can be picked up and put down on a whim. If you find out that you do have the ability and want to eventually practice as a working medium, it will take dedication, patience, and time, as it can be a physically demanding job. Mediumship has to develop and grow; you’ll find that most mediums spend their entire lives developing their abilities. One final point: you must also be ready to live a life of service.
Graphic designer and artist Bill Wolf, whose interest in tarot illustration dates to his art-school days at Cooper Union in New York, has his own theories about the tarot’s beginning. Wolf, who doesn’t use cards for divination, believes that originally, “the meaning of the imagery was parallel to the mechanics of the play of the game. The random draw of the cards created a new, unique narrative each and every time the game was played, and the decisions players made influenced the unfolding of that narrative.” Imagine a choose-your-own-adventure style card game.
One, some psychic mediums see spirits. Not every spirit chooses to show himself or herself to a psychic medium who has this ability, but many of them do. If the psychic medium can see spirits, part of the communication will be based on sight. A psychic medium may see something in their mind’s eye (as an inner vision), or they may see spirits the way they see other people (as a physical manifestation, except the spirits are more ethereal, ghostly).
Here in the physical world, your family and friends aren’t around you 24/7, but when there’s a crisis or emergency, they’re there when you need them. Well, it’s just the same way with your family and friends on the Other-Side. They often know what’s going on in your life and try to let you know they are there for you, whether it’s for love, guidance, hope, or even inspiration. I’m convinced that few people actually realize just how much energy it takes for those who have passed to lower their vibration and make a connection to this physical plane. As a result, it’s not something they’re going to want to be doing all the time. I believe that they have their own learning to do over there and need time to grow and progress, which is why those who have recently passed often need time before they’re ready to connect to the living.

Because the earliest tarot cards were hand-painted, the number of the decks produced is thought to have been small. It was only after the invention of the printing press that mass production of cards became possible. The expansion of tarot outside of Italy, first to France and Switzerland, occurred during the Italian Wars. The most important tarot pattern used in these two countries was the Tarot of Marseilles of Milanese origin.[1]
A fake medium is likely to consider money first and foremost. Because a mediumistic reading is un-provable it's hard to get your money back. You know when something is wrong when nothing makes sense or the medium asks many probing questions. Remember however that even the best mediums have off days, but primarily things should make sense. Some pieces of information don't make sense for days, sometimes weeks after the reading. Realization comes though a family member or finding an old photograph or letter. A medium can never make promises about which spirits with come through or on what information they can gather from spirit. Contact doesn't work that way, and you tend to get what you're given!
By comparing various decks from different time periods, tarot-card enthusiasts can identify the evolution of certain illustrations. “For example,” says Matthews, “the modern version of the hermit with the lantern, you’ll find that that was an hourglass and he was Saturn or Chronos, the keeper of time. You can see how that translates with the Tarot Bolognese meaning of delay or blockage. It was about time moving slowly, though that’s not used as a modern meaning much now.”
In 1880 the American stage mentalist Washington Irving Bishop published a book revealing how mediums would use secret codes as the trick for their clairvoyant readings.[84] The Seybert Commission was a group of faculty at the University of Pennsylvania who in 1884–1887 exposed fraudulent mediums such as Pierre L. O. A. Keeler and Henry Slade.[85] The Fox sisters confessed to fraud in 1888. Margaret Fox revealed that she and her sister had produced the "spirit" rappings by cracking their toe joints.[86]
At one time these evil spirits were holy angels living in heaven with God.  But they rebelled with Satan and were cast down to planet earth. It's in the Bible, Revelation 12:7-9 NIV. "And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought with the dragon; and the dragon and his angels fought, but they did not prevail, nor was a place found for them in heaven any longer. So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him."

I have been fortunate enough to work with trance mediums, one especially gifted one, in a therapeutic context for several years now. I personally feel we truly know next to nothing about the mechanisms behind trance channeling and mediumship. Like Edison said, "We don't know one millionth of one percent about anything." I do think it's far more likely to be an integrative both/and rather than either/or pheonomenon with respect to subconscious production vs spirit speakers (to say nothing of tapping the collective unconscious) and that's about all I feel reasonably sure of. Quantum (Unified Field)theories/New Paradigm Science and the like holds promise as far as cracking the code on the the entire spectrum of super-normal phenomena. The study here sounds rudimentary. I would suggest interested readers see the research being done at Windbridge Institue, the Rhine Research Center, and IONS.
Tasting or smelling “messages” from spirit may sound odd or useless. So here’s an example I’d like to share…During a reading, I had the pleasure of tasting AND smelling homemade, sweet molasses syrup – warm and delicious. This was how my client’s deceased aunt chose to identify herself when she came through. My client was absolutely delighted that her aunt chose this wonderful memory to share. The molasses was her aunt’s specialty and there were many happy memories connected with it. To me, it smelled and tasted so real my stomach growled.

Mediumship must under no circumstances to be taken lightly. Years of training and development, personal balancing and tuning are required. You are dealing with other people's emotions after all, it's a big responsibility. A good spiritual medium stands for truth, love and light, with the highest intent to serve. Spiritual mediumship is a selfless act. A good professional medium may require a fee to put food on the table, but mediumship should not be undertaken with excessive profit as the main driver, instead it should be the will to help others, provide healing, understanding, reassurance and comfort.

You make an appointment via telephone or by filling a form on a web page. You will usually be charged by the minute. A genuine, professional medium will get his message over succinctly and clearly. Some unethical practitioners will simply try to wring as much money out of you as possible by keeping you talking. Others, like Psychic Elements, would prefer to build up a rapport by giving you exactly what you want and need in as short as time possible. You won’t get ripped off, and you should be so impressed that you’ll want to repeat the experience when you next need a helping hand from the spiritual realm.
You make an appointment via telephone or by filling a form on a web page. You will usually be charged by the minute. A genuine, professional medium will get his message over succinctly and clearly. Some unethical practitioners will simply try to wring as much money out of you as possible by keeping you talking. Others, like Psychic Elements, would prefer to build up a rapport by giving you exactly what you want and need in as short as time possible. You won’t get ripped off, and you should be so impressed that you’ll want to repeat the experience when you next need a helping hand from the spiritual realm.
Discover the Advice You Are Searching For Keen also has many psychic reading options outside of spiritual healing readers. If you have questions about your love life or relationships, you can get a love reading from a psychic on Keen. If you are interested in knowing your fortune through tarot, Keen has many online tarot readers who are proven experts at this medium. If you wish for an astrology reading, the Keen platform hosts astrologers who specialize in subjects such as Vedic astrology, Mayan astrology, and Chinese astrology amongst others. No matter what you're looking for, Keen.com can get you in touch with specialists in all of these very diverse and enlightening subjects.
A psychic medium is someone who claims to have or is believed to have extrasensory capabilities that enable the person to perceive and interpret paranormal forces. Some experts believe that everyone has a certain amount of psychic power, sometimes called a “sixth sense,” that is really an intensive form of intuitive observation, according to psychics.co.uk. A psychic medium reading is a session during which the medium, or “reader,” analyzes a person’s “aura” (electric and magnetic energy surrounding each person) to explain a set of circumstances or offer a reasonable prognosis of events that may occur in the future. Many people claim to be an accurate psychic medium, but not all have paranormal abilities. The following information can help you avoid being taken advantage of by an imposter and perhaps lead you to someone who is an authentic psychic medium.

First, you have to realize that you’re thinking in terms of physical love when you ask this question. Those on the Other-Side are no longer constrained by the physical body and its needs. If someone was married more than once or had numerous loves, they can gravitate to whomever they want, or go back and join the soul group from which they came. It’s my belief that we reincarnate to this physical existence with the same people we’ve been with in numerous lifetimes, and that could encompass some of the loves and close relationships we’ve had here. I don’t feel that we have just one soul mate, as many people in your life could be your soul mates.
Spiritualists believe that phenomena produced by mediums (both mental and physical mediumship) are the result of external spirit agencies.[38] The psychical researcher Thomson Jay Hudson in The Law of Psychic Phenomena (1892) and Théodore Flournoy in his book Spiritism and Psychology (1911) wrote that all kinds of mediumship could be explained by suggestion and telepathy from the medium and that there was no evidence for the spirit hypothesis. The idea of mediumship being explained by telepathy was later merged into the "super-ESP" hypothesis of mediumship which is currently advocated by some parapsychologists.[39]
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