After her death in the 1980s the medium Doris Stokes was accused of fraud, by author and investigator Ian Wilson. Wilson stated that Mrs Stokes planted specific people in her audience and did prior research into her sitters.[174] Rita Goold a physical medium during the 1980s was accused of fraud, by the psychical researcher Tony Cornell. He claimed she would dress up as the spirits in her séances and would play music during them which provided cover for her to change clothes.[175]

“The imagery was designed to reflect important aspects of the real world that the players lived in, and the prominent Christian symbolism in the cards is an obvious reflection of the Christian world in which they lived,” he adds. As divinatory usage became more popular, illustrations evolved to reflect a specific designer’s intention. “The subjects took on more and more esoteric meaning,” says Wolf, “but they generally maintained the traditional tarot structure of four suits of pip cards [similar to the numbered cards in a normal playing-card deck], corresponding court cards, and the additional trump cards, with a Fool.”
The seven Glass family children have all been prodigies on the radio show "It's a Wise Child," but now the youngest, Franny, has returned from college to the family apartment in Manhattan and taken to her bed in a kind of nervous breakdown, sick of the world and unceasingly muttering a Jesus prayer. This is especially disconcerting because Franny and her next oldest brother, Zooey, are not only versed in all of the learning of the West, but have also been introduced to Eastern wisdom by their two oldest brothers, Seymour and Buddy. Salinger brings numerous key insights from Eastern wisdom into the heart of the American novel, and takes us on a spiritual journey in which the worth of all learning is called into question. Like Dostoevsky, Salinger risks everything. We discover with Franny that the answer she was looking for was right under her nose, and therefore close to her heart.

Attempts to communicate with the dead and other living human beings, aka spirits, have been documented back to early human history. The story of the Witch of Endor (In the most recent edition of the NIV witch is rendered medium in the passage) tells of one who raised the spirit of the deceased prophet Samuel to allow the Hebrew king Saul to question his former mentor about an upcoming battle, as related in the Books of Samuel in the Jewish Tanakh (the basis of the Old Testament).

No one truly knows when playing cards began to be used for divination, although as early as the fifteenth century, additional picture cards (trumps) were being added to decks of playing cards. These cards depicted images of gods, heroes, or motifs to express philosophical, social, astronomical, or other ideals. The earliest known mention of the practice of tarot-style cartomancy appears in literature in the 16th century. By the 18th century, simple divination methods using cards appeared in several manuscripts.

No. Most important, they want you to be happy. After all, you’re the one who’s still here and has to continue living in the physical world. When people come to see me for a private reading, having lost a spouse or a partner, it’s clear that they find it really hard to move on due to their bereavement. Some people even feel guilty for being alive, and some who have met someone else feel as if they’re cheating on their spouse or partner who passed away.


The medium Henry Slade was caught in fraud many times throughout his career. In a séance in 1876 in London Ray Lankester and Bryan Donkin snatched his slate before the "spirit" message was supposed to be written, and found the writing already there.[75] Slade also played an accordion with one hand under the table and claimed spirits would play it. The magician Chung Ling Soo revealed how Slade had performed the trick.[76]
Every reading is different – sometimes we are working more with spirits that have crossed over and doing a lot of channeling back and forth. Sometimes, we allow the guides and spirits to let loose and share all of the topics that they have been so eager to talk to you about. Sometimes, our clients want us to call in their loved ones that are alive (Heart Reading), and we work on mending their relationship. The experience varies, which makes the readings so much fun! There are always lessons to be shared from your guides and words of wisdom that have changed our lives, as well.
In 1891 at a public séance with twenty sitters the medium Cecil Husk was caught leaning over a table pretending to be a spirit by covering his face with phosphor material.[87] The magician Will Goldston also exposed the fraud mediumship of Husk. In a séance Goldston attended a pale face materialization appeared in the room. Goldston wrote "I saw at once that it was a gauze mask, and that the moustache attached to it was loose at one side through lack of gum. I pulled at the mask. It came away, revealing the face of Husk."[88] The British materialization medium Annie Fairlamb Mellon was exposed as a fraud on October 12, 1894. During the séance a sitter seized the materialized spirit, and found it to be the Mellon on her knees with white muslin on her head and shoulders.[89]
The spiritual guidance you receive during a reading with a psychic, medium or clairvoyant helps you to identify inner truths. This insight can be a valuable tool you can use to move your life forward. The type of spiritual reading, and the level of information and insight you receive, will depend on the intuitive awareness of the spiritual reader you are consulting.

Heart reading is not about prying into one’s personal thoughts, but more of a tool that helps you have a better understanding of the challenging relationships and/or communications in your life. We can ask anyone in your life to come forward, with permission from their higher self, and allow you to have a real conversation with this person. You can ask questions, receive answers, and understand the underlying dynamics of your relationship. Through the years, it has been brought to my attention that these conversations have the same effect as a physical face-to-face conversation.
Mediumship must under no circumstances to be taken lightly. Years of training and development, personal balancing and tuning are required. You are dealing with other people's emotions after all, it's a big responsibility. A good spiritual medium stands for truth, love and light, with the highest intent to serve. Spiritual mediumship is a selfless act. A good professional medium may require a fee to put food on the table, but mediumship should not be undertaken with excessive profit as the main driver, instead it should be the will to help others, provide healing, understanding, reassurance and comfort.

The séance trick of the Eddy Brothers was revealed by the magician Chung Ling Soo in 1898. The brothers utilized a fake hand made of lead, and with their hands free from control would play musical instruments and move objects in the séance room.[96] The physiologist Ivor Lloyd Tuckett examined a case of spirit photography that W. T. Stead had claimed was genuine. Stead visited a photographer who had produced a photograph of him with deceased soldier known as "Piet Botha". Stead claimed that the photographer could not have come across any information about Piet Botha, however, Tuckett discovered that an article in 1899 had been published on Pietrus Botha in a weekly magazine with a portrait and personal details.[97]


According to James Randi, a skeptic who has debunked many claims of psychic ability and uncovered fraudulent practices,[202] mediums who do cold readings "fish, suggest possibilities, make educated guesses and give options." Randi has a standing offer of $1 million US dollars for anyone who can demonstrate psychic ability under controlled conditions. Most prominent psychics and mediums have not taken up his offer.[203]
In 1991, Wendy Grossman in the New Scientist criticized the parapsychologist Stephen E. Braude for ignoring evidence of fraud in mediumship. According to Grossman "[Braude] accuses sceptics of ignoring the evidence he believes is solid, but himself ignores evidence that does not suit him. If a medium was caught cheating on some occasions, he says, the rest of that medium's phenomena were still genuine." Grossman came to the conclusion that Braude did not do proper research on the subject and should study "the art of conjuring."[180]
"Mental mediumship" is communication of spirits with a medium by telepathy. The medium mentally "hears" (clairaudience), "sees" (clairvoyance), and/or feels (clairsentience) messages from spirits. Directly or with the help of a spirit guide, the medium passes the information on to the message's recipient(s). When a medium is doing a "reading" for a particular person, that person is known as the "sitter".
A psychic medium is someone who claims to have or is believed to have extrasensory capabilities that enable the person to perceive and interpret paranormal forces. Some experts believe that everyone has a certain amount of psychic power, sometimes called a “sixth sense,” that is really an intensive form of intuitive observation, according to psychics.co.uk. A psychic medium reading is a session during which the medium, or “reader,” analyzes a person’s “aura” (electric and magnetic energy surrounding each person) to explain a set of circumstances or offer a reasonable prognosis of events that may occur in the future. Many people claim to be an accurate psychic medium, but not all have paranormal abilities. The following information can help you avoid being taken advantage of by an imposter and perhaps lead you to someone who is an authentic psychic medium.

Mediums can bring messages from your loved ones (humans and beloved pets) who have passed over and also offer evidence that there is life after death. If there is a specific person who you would like to connect with, via a medium, that is often possible but even if a particular spirit is not ready to come through a medium should be able to give you information that will be of comfort because there will almost certainly be a spirit connected to the medium who will be able to give the evidence you need for reassurance.


On 4 February 1922, Harry Price with James Seymour, Eric Dingwall and William S. Marriott had proven the spirit photographer William Hope was a fraud during tests at the British College of Psychic Science. Price wrote in his SPR report "William Hope has been found guilty of deliberately substituting his own plates for those of a sitter... It implies that the medium brings to the sitting a duplicate slide and faked plates for fraudulent purposes."[128] The medium Kathleen Goligher was investigated by the physicist Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe. On July 22, 1921 in a séance he observed Goligher holding the table up with her foot. He also discovered that her ectoplasm was made of muslin. During a séance d'Albe observed white muslin between Goligher's feet.[129]
It is most likely connected to a previous life in which there is a lesson that must be learned and overcome. Are you ever drawn to something that you can’t explain? A country? A profession? A life mission? These may be connected to a past life. We can help you understand your past so you can move forward with a renewed passion and understanding of your life’s purpose.
Before setting a consultation appointment, it is important my client understands I work with prayers of protection and thanks to God. My intention is to help my clients achieve their greater good. If there is information the client is not “supposed” to have, then the information will not be revealed to me. I do share everything that IS revealed to me, with no judgments or holding back.

The medium Frank Decker was exposed as a fraud in 1932. A magician and séance sitter who called himself M. Taylor presented a mail bag and Decker agreed to lock himself inside it. During the séance objects were moved around the room and it was claimed spirits had released Decker from the bag. It was later discovered to have been a trick as Martin Sunshine, a magic dealer admitted that he sold Decker a trick mail bag, such as stage escapologists use, and had acted as the medium's confederate by pretending to be M. Taylor, a magician.[155] The British medium Estelle Roberts claimed to materialize an Indian spirit guide called "Red Cloud". Researcher Melvin Harris who examined some photographs of Red Cloud wrote the face was the same as Roberts and she had dressed up in a feathered war-bonnet.[156]
Absolutely not! I’ve had sittings myself with other mediums, and some people whom I was close to here haven’t come through for me. I believe they have their own lives over there, and often they’re off doing their own thing. Maybe some choose to progress quickly and further, and while they will always love you, they’re no longer attached to this plane of existence. You could be getting signs from them, and you may not even recognize the signs and signals they’re sending. In the Spirit World, they don’t measure time as we do here, so they may still come through for you at a later date, or they may come through when you really need it.
The trance medium Leonora Piper was investigated by psychical researchers and psychologists in the late 19th and early 20th century. In an experiment to test if Piper's "spirit" controls were purely fictitious the psychologist G. Stanley Hall invented a niece called Bessie Beals and asked Piper's 'control' to get in touch with it. Bessie appeared, answered questions and accepted Hall as her uncle.[98] The psychologist Joseph Jastrow wrote that Piper pretended to be controlled by spirits and fell into simple and logical traps from her comments.[99] Science writer Martin Gardner concluded Piper was a cold reader that would "fish" for information from her séance sitters.[100] The physiologist Ivor Lloyd Tuckett who examined Piper's mediumship in detail wrote it could be explained by "muscle-reading, fishing, guessing, hints obtained in the sitting, knowledge surreptitiously obtained, knowledge acquired in the interval between sittings and lastly, facts already within Mrs. Piper's knowledge."[101]
After drawing your cards, revisit your initial question to ensure that it has been addressed properly. A good tarot guide can help you interpret the images you see on the tarot cards, but there’s really no substitute for personal reflection. As with any skill, practice makes perfect, so use this tarot tool often (daily, if possible), or order a set of Astrology Answers Master Deck Tarot Cards and practice at home!
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