In 1880 the American stage mentalist Washington Irving Bishop published a book revealing how mediums would use secret codes as the trick for their clairvoyant readings.[84] The Seybert Commission was a group of faculty at the University of Pennsylvania who in 1884–1887 exposed fraudulent mediums such as Pierre L. O. A. Keeler and Henry Slade.[85] The Fox sisters confessed to fraud in 1888. Margaret Fox revealed that she and her sister had produced the "spirit" rappings by cracking their toe joints.[86]
The British medium William Roy earned over £50,000 from his séance sitters. He confessed to fraud in 1958 revealing the microphone and trick-apparatus that he had used.[166] The automatic writings of the Irish medium Geraldine Cummins were analyzed by psychical researchers in the 1960s and they revealed that she worked as a cataloguer at the National Library of Ireland and took information from various books that would appear in her automatic writings about ancient history.[167]
This is an organized event that can take place in an auditorium, church or even a TV studio. Participants are picked out from the audience randomly, and the spiritualist or medium passes messages, either directly from the spiritual realm or via his or her personal spirit guide. It’s a good way to see how it all works, but you are playing a numbers game as the chances of you receiving a message are remote.
The spirit photographer William Hope tricked William Crookes with a fake spirit photograph of his wife in 1906. Oliver Lodge revealed there had been obvious signs of double exposure, the picture of Lady Crookes had been copied from a wedding anniversary photograph, however, Crookes was a convinced spiritualist and claimed it was genuine evidence for spirit photography.[106]

In a series of fake séance experiments (Wiseman et al. 2003) paranormal believers and disbelievers were suggested by an actor that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of the participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. The results showed a greater percentage of believers reporting that the table had moved. In another experiment the believers had also reported that a handbell had moved when it had remained stationary and expressed their belief that the fake séances contained genuine paranormal phenomena. The experiments strongly supported the notion that in the séance room, believers are more suggestible than disbelievers for suggestions that are consistent with their belief in paranormal phenomena.[51]


I am here to help you! I am a 3rd. generation Spiritual Intuitive Healer. I have guided many people helping them find solutions to life's problems for over 30 years. My precise psychic readings may help unlock the mysteries and assist you discovering clarity & peace in your life. I am a strong true God Gifted Psychic Spiritualist. I have been blessed with a strong ability from God to help those around me recognize the opportunities surrounding them.
Mina Crandon claimed to materialize a "spirit hand", but when examined by biologists the hand was discovered to be made from a piece of carved animal liver.[143] The German apport medium Heinrich Melzer was discovered to be a fraud in 1926. In a séance psychical researchers found that Melzer had small stones attached to the back of his ears by flesh coloured tape.[144] Psychical researchers who investigated the mediumship of Maria Silbert revealed that she used her feet and toes to move objects in the séance room.[145]
The fraudulent medium Ronald Edwin confessed he had duped his séance sitters and revealed the fraudulent methods he had used in his book Clock Without Hands (1955).[164] The psychical researcher Tony Cornell investigated the mediumship of Alec Harris in 1955. During the séance "spirit" materializations emerged from a cabinet and walked around the room. Cornell wrote that a stomach rumble, nicotine smelling breath and a pulse gave it away that all the spirit figures were in fact Harris and that he had dressed up as each one behind the cabinet.[165]
Mediums obtain messages from the spirit world in different ways. Some receive intuitive information, in which images and words appear as mental impressions that are then relayed along to the living. In other cases, a medium may hear actual auditory messages or see actual images of these messages. Many people who do spirit communication regularly find that the dead can be quite a chatty bunch sometimes. If they've got something to tell you, they're going to make sure you get told. What you choose to do with the information is up to you, but a lot of mediums, it can feel like they've got someone's dead granny screaming in their ears, and if they don't pass that message along to you, she's not going to shut up.
Playing cards first entered Europe in the late 14th century, most likely from Mamluk Egypt, with suits of Batons or Polo sticks (commonly known as Wands by those practicing occult or divinatory tarot), Coins (commonly known as disks, or pentacles in occult or divinatory tarot), Swords, and Cups. These suits were very similar to modern tarot divination decks and are still used in traditional Italian, Spanish and Portuguese playing card decks.[5]
The meaning of dream symbols naturally varies according to each soul's chosen axioms. The Spiritual Soul Travel (Dream) interpretations that I gift from Spirit through me, are based on a belief that dreams are an animated, personalized way in which Spirit gifts us with the messages of the infinite possibilities of our Infinite Life Experiences within Infinite Dimensions, Infinite Universes, and Infinite Parallel Universes and gifts these pearls of wisdom to us within our Spiritual Soul Travels or Dreams (I explain more of this within the Stepping Into Spiritual Oneness ~ Spiritual Rememberings of the Soul Through Life Experience book, I invite you to read it, by clicking here) to bring forth here onto this earth dimension in this Life Experience for us to remember, embrace, and treasure this wisdom. Having interpreted thousands of Spiritual Soul Travels (Dreams), for all souls whom have come to me (including my soul's Spiritual Soul Travels or Dreams) I experience the all inclusive inner wisdom from the Universe that Spirit is exquisitely metaphorical with their messages. All Spiritual Soul Travels (Dreams) in my experience are multi-faceted and each Spiritual Soul Travel (Dream) can contain infinite variations of messages overlaying and interconnecting with and within one another.
“Help yourself during this troubled period by reading holy books. This reading provides excellent food for the soul and conduces to great progress along the path of perfection. By no means is it inferior to what we obtain through prayer and holy meditation. In prayer and meditation it is ourselves who speak to the Lord, while in holy reading it is God who speaks to us. Before beginning to read, raise your mind to the Lord and implore Him to guide your mind Himself, to speak to your heart and move your will.”
Ten mediums—five less expert and five experienced—were injected with a radioactive tracer to capture their brain activity during normal writing and during the practice of psychography, which involves allegedly channeling written communication from the "other side" while in a trance-like state. The subjects were scanned using SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) to highlight the areas of the brain that are active and inactive during the practice.
Other good starting points in studying the intellectual side of the faith are Frank Sheed’s Theology for Beginners and the Catechism of the Catholic Church.  The Catechism is probably thought of more as a reference book, and it certainly is useful for that—but it also contains a tremendous amount of spiritual wisdom.  In pondering the mysteries of our faith, we can better make connections between what the Church teaches and why the Church teaches it. 
It’s simple — because they can! People on the Other-Side want to share our lives with us. Over the years I’ve been practicing as a medium, I must have done thousands of sittings where spirits have come through to acknowledge that they were around their loved ones during difficult times, and by doing so, they were able to lend their support and strength. 
1) When you contact me for a reading, I may ask you if you are looking to connect with someone who has passed. Because I work as a psychic and a medium, I want to be able to know how I can best serve you. In order to preserve the integrity of your reading, please just answer yes or no, and do not volunteer any other information regarding loved ones passed. It’s better that they provide you with that validation during the reading.
But to balance such arcane decks, there are divinatory cards that offer little room for interpretation, like “Le Scarabée d’Or” or The Golden Beetle Oracle, one of Wolf’s most prized decks. “It’s just fantastically bizarre. There’s a little window in the lid of the card box, and when you shake it, the beetle appears, and points to a number,” he explains. “Then you find the corresponding number on a set of round cards, with beautiful script text on them, and read your fortune. Can you not imagine standing in a Victorian parlor in France, consulting the Golden Beetle? It was like performance art.”
Direct voice communication is the claim that spirits speak independently of the medium, who facilitates the phenomenon rather than produces it. The role of the medium is to make the connection between the physical and spirit worlds. Trumpets are often utilised to amplify the signal, and directed voice mediums are sometimes known as "trumpet mediums". This form of mediumship also permits the medium to participate in the discourse during séances, since the medium's voice is not required by the spirit to communicate. Leslie Flint was one of the best known exponents of this form of mediumship.[28]

“Help yourself during this troubled period by reading holy books. This reading provides excellent food for the soul and conduces to great progress along the path of perfection. By no means is it inferior to what we obtain through prayer and holy meditation. In prayer and meditation it is ourselves who speak to the Lord, while in holy reading it is God who speaks to us. Before beginning to read, raise your mind to the Lord and implore Him to guide your mind Himself, to speak to your heart and move your will.”
One frequent obstacle with spiritual reading is the question of where to start.  There are so many writings of saints, magisterial documents, and enough devotional books and pamphlets to fill a library.  Choosing what kind of books to read should have a multi-pronged approach, depending on each individual.  I think a great way to organize it is an adaptation of St. John Paul II’s recommendations in Pastores Dabo Vobis.  The encyclical was on the training of priests, and he called attention to four basic areas of formation: human, spiritual, intellectual, and pastoral. Even though most of us aren’t ordained priests, we can still apply this to our spiritual reading habits.  Good spiritual reads will ideally aid us in all four of those elements—or at least focus on one or two. 
In 1992, Richard Wiseman analyzed the Feilding report of Eusapia Palladino and argued that she employed a secret accomplice that could enter the room by a fake door panel positioned near the séance cabinet. Wiseman discovered this trick was already mentioned in a book from 1851, he also visited a carpenter and skilled magician who constructed a door within an hour with a false panel. The accomplice was suspected to be her second husband, who insisted on bringing Palladino to the hotel where the séances took place.[181] Massimo Polidoro and Gian Marco Rinaldi also analyzed the Feilding report but came to the conclusion no secret accomplice was needed as Palladino during the 1908 Naples séances could have produced the phenomena by using her foot.[182]
Communicating with the spirit world daily keeps you in touch with spirit companions, spirit guides, and the universal consciousness, it also allows for in-pourings of infinite intelligent energy. You may discover that your abilities are rather more developed than you had previously imagined and wish to help others with your newly discovered gifts - and you can. Being a spiritual medium can provide enormous amounts of healing to people. For example, providing comfort by showing beyond all doubt that a woman's husband still lives-on in spirit, or confirming to a skeptic that death is not the end, or conveying to a client that her father is pleased with her achievements. Imagine how this can make people feel.

No one truly knows when playing cards began to be used for divination, although as early as the fifteenth century, additional picture cards (trumps) were being added to decks of playing cards. These cards depicted images of gods, heroes, or motifs to express philosophical, social, astronomical, or other ideals. The earliest known mention of the practice of tarot-style cartomancy appears in literature in the 16th century. By the 18th century, simple divination methods using cards appeared in several manuscripts.
Spiritualists believe that phenomena produced by mediums (both mental and physical mediumship) are the result of external spirit agencies.[38] The psychical researcher Thomson Jay Hudson in The Law of Psychic Phenomena (1892) and Théodore Flournoy in his book Spiritism and Psychology (1911) wrote that all kinds of mediumship could be explained by suggestion and telepathy from the medium and that there was no evidence for the spirit hypothesis. The idea of mediumship being explained by telepathy was later merged into the "super-ESP" hypothesis of mediumship which is currently advocated by some parapsychologists.[39]
In 1880 the American stage mentalist Washington Irving Bishop published a book revealing how mediums would use secret codes as the trick for their clairvoyant readings.[84] The Seybert Commission was a group of faculty at the University of Pennsylvania who in 1884–1887 exposed fraudulent mediums such as Pierre L. O. A. Keeler and Henry Slade.[85] The Fox sisters confessed to fraud in 1888. Margaret Fox revealed that she and her sister had produced the "spirit" rappings by cracking their toe joints.[86]
Every reading is different – sometimes we are working more with spirits that have crossed over and doing a lot of channeling back and forth. Sometimes, we allow the guides and spirits to let loose and share all of the topics that they have been so eager to talk to you about. Sometimes, our clients want us to call in their loved ones that are alive (Heart Reading), and we work on mending their relationship. The experience varies, which makes the readings so much fun! There are always lessons to be shared from your guides and words of wisdom that have changed our lives, as well.
It’s simple — because they can! People on the Other-Side want to share our lives with us. Over the years I’ve been practicing as a medium, I must have done thousands of sittings where spirits have come through to acknowledge that they were around their loved ones during difficult times, and by doing so, they were able to lend their support and strength. 
A Medium is the interpreter that spirits talk through. Mediumship is a process of communication between a Medium (a physical body) on the earth plane and a discarnate (an entity without a physical body). A Medium is said to be sensitive to vibrations from the spirit world, enabling them to communicate with discarnate entities - including angels and guides.
Modern spiritualists and psychics keep detailed files on their victims. As might be expected, these files can be very valuable and are often passed on from one medium or psychic to another when one retires or dies. Even if a psychic doesn't use a private detective or have immediate access to driver's license records and such, there is still a very powerful technique that will allow the psychic to convince people that the psychic knows all about them, their problems, and their deep personal secrets, fears, and desires. The technique is called cold reading and is probably as old as charlatanism itself... If John Edward (or any of the other self-proclaimed speakers with the dead) really could communicate with the dead, it would be a trivial matter to prove it. All that would be necessary would be for him to contact any of the thousands of missing persons who are presumed dead—famous (e.g., Jimmy Hoffa, Judge Crater) or otherwise—and correctly report where the body is. Of course, this is never done. All we get, instead, are platitudes to the effect that Aunt Millie, who liked green plates, is happy on the other side.[192]
Absolutely not! I’ve had sittings myself with other mediums, and some people whom I was close to here haven’t come through for me. I believe they have their own lives over there, and often they’re off doing their own thing. Maybe some choose to progress quickly and further, and while they will always love you, they’re no longer attached to this plane of existence. You could be getting signs from them, and you may not even recognize the signs and signals they’re sending. In the Spirit World, they don’t measure time as we do here, so they may still come through for you at a later date, or they may come through when you really need it.
The original purpose of tarot cards was to play games. A very cursory explanation of rules for a tarot-like deck is given in a manuscript by Martiano da Tortona before 1425. Vague descriptions of game play or game terminology follow for the next two centuries until the earliest known complete description of rules for a French variant in 1637.[11] The game of tarot has many regional variations. Tarocchini has survived in Bologna and there are still others played in Piedmont and Sicily, but in Italy the game is generally less popular than elsewhere.
“You either have these very shallow ones or these rampantly esoteric ones with so many signs and symbols on them you can barely make them out,” says Matthews. “I bought my first tarot pack, which was the Tarot de Marseille published by Grimaud in 1969, and I recently came right around back to it after not using it for a while.” Presumably originating in the 17th century, the Tarot de Marseille is one of the most common types of tarot deck ever produced. Marseille decks were generally printed with woodblocks and later colored by hand using basic stencils.
The British direct-voice medium Frederick Tansley Munnings was exposed as a fraud when one of his séance sitters turned the lights on which revealed him to be holding a trumpet by means of a telescopic extension piece and using an angle piece to change the auditory effect of his voice.[126] Richard Hodgson held six sittings with the medium Rosina Thompson and came to the conclusion she was a fraud as he discovered Thompson had access to documents and information about her séance sitters.[127]

Rebecca Rosen has served as a bridge between this world and those who have crossed over to the other side for the past 10 years. Her work has led to many guest appearances, including Entertainment Tonight, The Rachael Ray Show and Nightline, and her first book, Spirited: Connect to the Guides All Around You (HarperCollins). Due to the high and growing demand for spiritual truth, she has committed herself fulltime to serving as a medium and also educates thousands of people around the country with her seminars, lectures and workshops. Learn more about Rosen by visiting her website. 
In 1910 at a séance in Grenoble, France the apport medium Charles Bailey produced two live birds in the séance room. Bailey was unaware that the dealer he had bought the birds from was present in the séance and he was exposed as a fraud.[111] The psychical researcher Eric Dingwall observed the medium Bert Reese in New York and claimed to have discovered his billet reading tricks.[112] The most detailed account at exposing his tricks (with diagrams) was by the magician Theodore Annemann.[113]

Spiritual Guidance can confirm information that an individual may be receiving from their own Higher Self, but because they may not be totally connected or emotionally involved, they are unable to really allow that information to be perceived or understood as a clear truth. A spiritual guide that points toward the same information can then delve deeper into the situations that may be surrounding the issues of why a person may not be able to totally trust the guidance received. Even those who would consider themselves advanced on the spiritual path, still from time to time, need a little outside confirmation from another connected being to see if their information is coming through clearly. This added confirmation from an outside source can sometimes be just the encouragement someone needs in taking that next step. Spiritual readings are more interactive and encourages the person being read to participate in the learning process. It is not a process where you should try to test your reader by giving incorrect information or trying to be vague. It should be considered counseling or therapy which involves a two-way interaction. The other difference that may be experienced between these two types of guidance is that spiritual guidance can, at times, be harsh and more direct. The goal is to help the person evolve to a higher level and sometimes the person needs to take responsibility for the situations that are currently being experienced. It can awaken dormant emotions, which can be very painful or can also release waves of anger. These emotions, if processed appropriately, can be used to initiate a healing process in an area that was once considered a block. If one is sincerely following a spiritual path, then they must take responsibility for the good and the bad that is occurring in their life. Not to mention some of the negative scenarios that they may have committed in a past lifetime.
Second, when the spirit speaks to Saul and gives a prediction, the spirit says, "tomorrow you and your sons will be with me.” Again we have to ask, if Samuel is a good man and prophet of the Lord, isn't he supposed to be in heaven? If we assume that the spirit of Samuel is in heaven, then, how can Saul, who is in rebellion against the Lord, also end up where Samuel is the next day? It seems the spirit is a lying spirit!

This beautiful little jewel of a novel relates the life story of a man born into a wealthy Brahmin family in India in the time of Buddha. Siddhartha leaves his family as a young man and, along with his pal Govinda, heads to the forest to join a group of wandering ascetics in search of the meaning of life. The book is divided into three parts: Siddhartha as ascetic, as sensualist, and finally as ferryman on the river. There, under the tutelage of an old, unlettered wise man, Vasudeva, Siddhartha, with his fierce honesty, tries to find his salvation. Hesse struggles to find the words to convey experiences of bliss and transcendence which go beyond where language can travel. At one point, Siddhartha meets Buddha himself and, in a beautiful scene, tells Buddha that although he knows Buddha has found the answer, Siddhartha must seek it on his own—just as Buddha did. In the extremely moving conclusion, Siddhartha realizes his original aim by reaching a state of enlightenment and compassion for all.

The Christian spiritual life is a journey that doesn’t exist in a vacuum. Christianity requires a community to exist in and teachers from whom to learn the faith, and features a cloud of witnesses cheering us on (Heb 12:1).  The Holy Spirit animates the Church and, among other things, gives her the gifts of knowledge, wisdom, understanding, fortitude, good counsel, and fear of the Lord, piety.  We have an obligation to build on those gifts sealed in us at our confirmation: and one of the most effective ways is spiritual reading.  By reading good spiritual books, we can build on each of those seven gifts of the Holy Spirit.  In addition, we can come to know the saints better, sit at their feet, and learn from their writings.
You can find the psychics on various online websites who can offer Tarot Card readings, Palm readings, numerology readings, astrological (birth chart) readings etc. and also help you with issues related to relationships, career or personal life. However, they are generally expensive. I find that local psychics and sensitives ask a more reasonable hourly rate. Because they are in the room with you, you get a more personal relationship as well.

Why A Spiritual Reading on Keen? Are you in need of spiritual healing? Are you looking for the strength within to overcome obstacles in your life? Keen has been a trusted source for online spiritual readings since 1999. If you are searching for something deeper and more meaningful in your life, talk to a spiritual psychic about ways you can grow. This advice can include energy clearings, reiki, aura, and pendulum readings. From spiritual guidance & visualization to astral projection & prayer, advisors on Keen can help you step out of the depths of emptiness and rediscover the radiant spirit residing in your soul. Call a spiritual advisor to start developing a new connection to peace and happiness.
We are able to connect and communicate with anyone that has passed on and we can share information between you and your loved ones. You will have the opportunity to say the words you didn’t get to say before their passing. We are able to assist you in learning why your loved one passed when they did, what purpose they served, and what lessons they learned.

I have been fortunate enough to work with trance mediums, one especially gifted one, in a therapeutic context for several years now. I personally feel we truly know next to nothing about the mechanisms behind trance channeling and mediumship. Like Edison said, "We don't know one millionth of one percent about anything." I do think it's far more likely to be an integrative both/and rather than either/or pheonomenon with respect to subconscious production vs spirit speakers (to say nothing of tapping the collective unconscious) and that's about all I feel reasonably sure of. Quantum (Unified Field)theories/New Paradigm Science and the like holds promise as far as cracking the code on the the entire spectrum of super-normal phenomena. The study here sounds rudimentary. I would suggest interested readers see the research being done at Windbridge Institue, the Rhine Research Center, and IONS.
Using Your Tarot Deck Look at the cards one by one, take time to immerse yourself, and try to acknowledge the symbolism. Draw cards only when you feel inspired to do so. Full moon days and Mondays are auspicious for drawing. It is best consult Tarot when you are neither preoccupied or stressed. Your surroundings should be quiet and softly lit, possible. It is also helpful to light candles or incense. Set the cards on a neutral-colored cloth (black or white), and then begin your reading. Questions must be precise and clear. Then the cards have to be well-shuffled, cut, displayed and chosen with your l hand. If you shuffle the cards and one accidentally falls out of the deck, look at it; as it often indicates something important.
There are many ways of working with the deck. You should choose your own deck by being drawn to it intuitively. There are layers upon layers of systems to learn, including Kabbalah, the tree of life, colour scales, Hebrew letters, numerology, pathways, symbolism, alchemy, astrology, mythology and learning to meditate with each card directly. The more layers you learn the deeper your knowledge and insight into the cards.
I got a psychic slap the morning of/before the Dallas police shooting. “El Centro” , the words, came into my head. No sound, no vision, etc. I knew of the school 30+ years ago when my boyfriend, who passed, attended a few seminars. I ran through my head a series questions but nothing made sense. Later that night on tv i heard the gunman was holed up there. I couldn’t breathe. This was my wake up.
If the words "spiritual medium" call to mind cheap velvet cushions and crystal balls, you're in good company. But a session with Gabriel feels like an amazing conversation with a therapist you've seen for years; she's down-to-earth, astute and totally professional. She gives in-person readings for larger groups and individual readings over the phone. View Profile »
Over time you must build up a relationship with your spirit guides. Your purpose in life is changing, and even if mediumship is only a hobby, your spirit guides need to adjust. Often-times you'll have a lead spirit guide who guides you the most in every day life and ensures you're staying on track according to your life plan if you have one. Different spirit guides preform different functions, for example, if you're an artist you may have an artist spirit guide who helps you while you paint. You may also have a motherly guide to help you in parenting and a business-minded guide for running a business. These are guides with certain expertise, learned during one or more previous lifetimes.
In 1966 the son of Bishop Pike committed suicide. After his death, Pike contacted the British medium Ena Twigg for a series of séances and she claimed to have communicated with his son. Although Twigg denied formerly knowing anything about Pike and his son, the magician John Booth discovered that Twigg had already known information about the Pike family before the séances. Twigg had belonged to the same denomination of Bishop Pike, he had preached at a cathedral in Kent and she had known information about him and his deceased son from newspapers.[169]
Communicating with the spirit world daily keeps you in touch with spirit companions, spirit guides, and the universal consciousness, it also allows for in-pourings of infinite intelligent energy. You may discover that your abilities are rather more developed than you had previously imagined and wish to help others with your newly discovered gifts - and you can. Being a spiritual medium can provide enormous amounts of healing to people. For example, providing comfort by showing beyond all doubt that a woman's husband still lives-on in spirit, or confirming to a skeptic that death is not the end, or conveying to a client that her father is pleased with her achievements. Imagine how this can make people feel.
If I had to choose one book to take to a desert island, this would be it. The ageless "Song of God" is, of course, a magnificent, sacred scripture and not technically a novel, but its narrative form makes it read like one. The Gita tells the story of Arjuna, who turns to the God Krishna, his friend, for explanations and advice on life. Krishna lays out an entire worldview, the philosophy of Vedanta, one of the great achievements of human thought. Christopher Isherwood, an English novelist, and Swami Prabhavananda, a disciple of Sri Ramakrishna and Isherwood's guru, translate the Gita in a simple, modern style, alternating between prose and poetry without sacrificing the majesty and wisdom of this ancient story. Krishna gives Arjuna simple advice which I have found so useful in my own life, such as not to do anything for results, but rather for God: "You can have the work," he tells Arjuna, "but not the products of the work."

Spend time in meditation to contemplate the lesson the Universe is trying to get you to completely understand by having you experience this pain or frustration, bring forth the Light and the power of your Higher Self and ask for wisdom in moving beyond the situation. You will need to infuse the vibrations of Love and Forgiveness in order to really clear this experience from your energy field. Spiritual guidance will help you to see some of these situations and offer you solutions to clearing and moving onward to a more positive future destiny.


In 1910 at a séance in Grenoble, France the apport medium Charles Bailey produced two live birds in the séance room. Bailey was unaware that the dealer he had bought the birds from was present in the séance and he was exposed as a fraud.[111] The psychical researcher Eric Dingwall observed the medium Bert Reese in New York and claimed to have discovered his billet reading tricks.[112] The most detailed account at exposing his tricks (with diagrams) was by the magician Theodore Annemann.[113]
Spiritists and mediums were common among the pagan peoples of the Bible lands. God warned the children of Israel against becoming involved in these practices just prior to their entry into the Promised Land of Canaan. "When you enter the land the Lord your God is giving you, do not learn to imitate the detestable ways of the nations there. Let no one be found among you who sacrifices his son or daughter in the fire, who practices divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft, or casts spells, or who is a medium or spiritist or who consults the dead. Anyone who does these things is detestable to the Lord." (Deuteronomy 18:9-12 NIV)

These trump, or triumph, cards were often painted for wealthy families. Members of the nobility would commission artists to create for them their own set of cards, featuring family members and friends as the triumph cards. A number of sets, some of which still exist today, were created for the Visconti family of Milan, which counted several dukes and barons among its numbers.
When most people consider consulting a psychic, they often want to know information about the future outcome of a given situation. Generally these questions are related to money, career and relationships. The reader must tune into a probable reality to receive this information. This is just what they are – probable realities. You live in cosmic sea of probabilities at all times. The way you think and act in the present, along with the karmic threads and karmic debts that you carry with you, is what determines your outcomes in any given situation. However, once a being awakens to the power of the Light and allows this Light to enter their being, they begin to take responsibility for everything that is occurring in their life — good and bad. They are now able to see the divine teachings present in every event.
In the late 19th century the fraudulent methods of spirit photographers such as David Duguid and Edward Wyllie were revealed by psychical researchers.[92] Hereward Carrington documented various methods (with diagrams) how the medium would manipulate the plates before, during, and after the séance to produce spirit forms.[93] The ectoplasm materializations of the French medium Eva Carrière were exposed as fraudulent. The fake ectoplasm of Carrière was made of cut-out paper faces from newspapers and magazines on which fold marks could sometimes be seen from the photographs.[94] Cut out faces that she used included Woodrow Wilson, King Ferdinand of Bulgaria, French president Raymond Poincaré and the actress Mona Delza.[95]
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