I am here to help you! I am a 3rd. generation Spiritual Intuitive Healer. I have guided many people helping them find solutions to life's problems for over 30 years. My precise psychic readings may help unlock the mysteries and assist you discovering clarity & peace in your life. I am a strong true God Gifted Psychic Spiritualist. I have been blessed with a strong ability from God to help those around me recognize the opportunities surrounding them.

How we live, what and how we think, how we love ourselves as well as others, and how we can help others in need is all part of being spiritual. We’re always given the opportunity to raise our vibration to a higher level simply through our actions. So many people are trying to have spiritual experiences when the truth is simple: we’re spiritual beings trying to have human experiences. Acts of unconditional love and compassion are the highest forms of “being spiritual.” Each and every one of us is capable of such wonderful and beautiful things. We can achieve so much with our time here, so let’s embrace it!


In the 1930s Harry Price (director of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research) had investigated the medium Helen Duncan and had her perform a number of test séances. She was suspected of swallowing cheesecloth which was then regurgitated as "ectoplasm".[148] Price had proven through analysis of a sample of ectoplasm produced by Duncan, that it was made of cheesecloth.[149] Helen Duncan would also use a doll made of a painted papier-mâché mask draped in an old sheet which she pretended to her sitters was a spirit.[150] The photographs taken by Thomas Glendenning Hamilton in the 1930s of ectoplasm reveal the substance to be made of tissue paper and magazine cut-outs of people. The famous photograph taken by Hamilton of the medium Mary Ann Marshall depicts tissue paper with a cut out of Arthur Conan Doyle's head from a newspaper. Skeptics have suspected that Hamilton may have been behind the hoax.[151]
Through channeling, we are able to connect to your Akashic Record to find out what your purpose is and what lessons you are supposed to be learning. Many times, we will find ourselves in the same situations, relationships, etc. until we learn the intended lesson and grow from it. Many times, our clients find this to be the biggest “aha!” moment for them when they can see the bigger picture and learn what they were supposed to learn.

King Saul of Israel sought counsel from a medium called the Witch of Endor. The armies of Israel were about to be attacked by the Philistines. Saul was in rebellion against God and in desperation sought the services of the spiritist. "So Saul disguised himself and put on other clothes, and he went, and two men with him; and they came to the woman by night. And he said, “Please conduct a séance for me, and bring up for me the one I shall name to you.” (1 Samuel 28:8 NKJV). Saul then asked the medium to conjure up the spirit of the deceased prophet Samuel, to ask his counsel regarding the pending Philistine attack. "And the king said to her, 'Do not be afraid. What did you see?' And the woman said to Saul, 'I saw a spirit ascending out of the earth.' So he said to her, 'What is his form?' And she said, 'An old man is coming up, and he is covered with a mantle.' And Saul perceived that it was Samuel, and he stooped with his face to the ground and bowed down.'" (1 Samuel 28:13-14. NKJV)
Many souls have written or called me to ask, is an email reading effective? Is it as effective as say a phone or in person reading? What about healings, can they work via email or phone as well? As I have explained to many souls, an email reading is what we would call here on this earth dimension as just as effective and in some cases more so than the phone or a soul to soul physical presence reading. This is simply because in a phone reading or in-person reading, most of what is said we hear but we may be free from remembering every word spoken so that it resonates within us. While it is the energy of the reading rather than the words themselves that provide us with the shift within the soul, there are moments when we forget what is said and there are moments we come infinitely back to a Spiritual Medium or search for another reader to gift us what it is we have forgotten.
We have the original NewAgeStore tarot interpretations and the extremely popular tarot cards from Aquatic Tarot by the lovely Andres Schroeter, the same cards that have been on NewAgeStore for over a decade.  In addition, the lovely and very talented Ciro Marchetti has graciously agreed to allow us to use his divine works of tarot art to add to our readings page. And yes! These cards are available for purchase directly through Ciro’s website
No, it really doesn’t work like that. Just like us, spirits have free will — mediums don’t have power over them. Most of the time, you’ll hear from the ones you’re hoping will come through with a message for you, but it’s rare that a medium will guarantee who’s going to come through. I’ve done many a reading with people who want to connect with a specific person, but end up hearing from someone they never expected. It isn’t a case of 1-800-Dial-the-Dead! Just such a situation happened recently when I sat with a client named Vivian who had great trouble walking, so I agreed to go to her home.
So once again, it’s our bereavement or guilt that prevents us from moving on. Rest assured, they’re neither angry nor upset. It may just take a little time before you can even think about meeting someone else, and when you do, that person will never replace the one you loved before. It will be a new experience and a different kind of love; a love they want you to have.
When deciding whether to consult with a local medium in person, check for a couple of things before scheduling. Does the person live in a decent or nice neighborhood? If not, that ought to raise questions about her ability to accurately advise clients. While it is common knowledge that mediums, like doctors, do not “treat” themselves due to the subjective nature of self-study, they should be able to boast a reasonable success rate with clients, which means the clients would want to return periodically as well as refer friends and associates. This would lead to significant income for an accurate psychic medium, so that she would be able to afford a comfortable home or office in a pretty good neighborhood. If the home or office appears run-down or quite modest, this may mean the reader is not as accurate as she claims. Not all psychics live in mansions, of course, but successful ones probably reflect an element of status.
When we first came here to this earth dimension as Spiritual Soul BEings within physical form, we were telepathic beings free from needing voice or even written communication to gift the ability of communication with other souls as telepathy was and still is if we so choose it to be a form of spiritual communication. It is a picking up on the spiritual energy and spiritual BEing within the physical being that you are. This exists beyond what we call here on the earth dimension as time and space. However, since we are Spiritual Soul BEings choosing a human form experience and within choosing a physical form we remember the Spiritual Soul BEing we are, we choose to play the game of written and auditory words within this Life Experience on this earth dimension. Thus here we are.  
That’s why it’s invisible to the human eye. It’s because it’s vibrating at such a high frequency that we’re unable to see it. Just like a dog whistle, we can’t hear it due to the high pitch, yet a dog can. There’s a thin layer between this world and the next (which I refer to either as “the Other-Side” or “the Spirit World”), and the only thing that separates us is the frequency of the vibrations.

Intuition is instinctively knowing or perceiving something before you have all the facts. From business to mysticism, intuition plays a part in knowing when something just doesn't seem right or is out of sync. When people say that they "just knew" or could feel it in their gut, that is intuition speaking. You can call it ESP or woman's intuition, but do you know how intuitive you are? Take this quiz and find out what the power of intuition means to you!
Every spiritual lesson we meet in our lives can be found in the seventy-eight Tarot cards. And when we consult the Tarot, we’ll get shown the exact lessons we need to learn and master to live an inspired life. It’s like holding up a mirror to yourself so that you can access your subconscious mind.  Tarot allows us to tap into the wisdom and answers that live in us all. 
The medium Frank Decker was exposed as a fraud in 1932. A magician and séance sitter who called himself M. Taylor presented a mail bag and Decker agreed to lock himself inside it. During the séance objects were moved around the room and it was claimed spirits had released Decker from the bag. It was later discovered to have been a trick as Martin Sunshine, a magic dealer admitted that he sold Decker a trick mail bag, such as stage escapologists use, and had acted as the medium's confederate by pretending to be M. Taylor, a magician.[155] The British medium Estelle Roberts claimed to materialize an Indian spirit guide called "Red Cloud". Researcher Melvin Harris who examined some photographs of Red Cloud wrote the face was the same as Roberts and she had dressed up in a feathered war-bonnet.[156]
The first documented tarot packs were recorded between 1440 and 1450 in Milan, Ferrara, Florence and Bologna when additional trump cards with allegorical illustrations were added to the common four-suit pack. These new decks were called carte da trionfi, triumph cards, and the additional cards known simply as trionfi, which became "trumps" in English. The earliest documentation of trionfi is found in a written statement in the court records of Florence, in 1440, regarding the transfer of two decks to Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta.[6][7]
Cynthia has the rare ability to give her clients much more than accurate spiritual psychic predictions. She gives them insight into how and why things are happening in their lives and what they can do to start making a difference. Cynthia gives both practical and spiritual psychic guidance into personal relationships and major decisions. Cynthia’s clients often report feeling a more spiritual connection with themselves and their lives, and the usefulness of the information she is able to connect with is worth much more than they paid for. Cynthia wants to give her clients useful information, hope and confidence with practical and spiritual ways to proceed in the real world
Many spiritual works exhort us to form the “human”; that is, to become the best version of ourselves.  To form the spiritual side of us is to draw us deeper into communion with Our Lord.  The intellectual aspect is important; we have to know what we believe.  It is not opposed to the spiritual side; why would God have given humans such a remarkable intellect if He didn’t intend for us to use it?  Lastly, I’d change “pastoral” to “vocational” for those of us among the laity.  Vocational books on being a parent, spouse, father, mother, etc. have been coming up more and more.
Sit in on a mediumistic circle to develop your skills. You need others to practice with and to discuss what's working and what's not. You can build strong bonds and make good friends while learning together. Your local spiritualist church is likely to run a mediumistic circle. An 'open circle' is where anyone can come along and join, a 'closed circle' is by invitation only. You can graduate from one to the other. You may be able to find independent spiritual and metaphysical circles online, directed by an experienced medium.

Why? You may well ask. Simple: it’s because I have a life here, and I need to be able to enjoy it without feeling as if I’m constantly on duty. In my workshops, I teach that we’re spiritual beings as well as physical beings, and it’s so important that we honor all of ourselves. It takes a really strong spirit to get my attention when I’m not working, as it needs to literally break through my shield, my “off switch,” but on those rare occasions when one does, I’ve now learned that I still must act on it every time.

Spiritual reading is an instruction in prayer and virtue, according to St. Bernard of Clairvaux, and thus he said that "spiritual reading and prayer are the arms by which hell is conquered and paradise won." St. Josemaría Escrivá explained that spiritual reading "builds up a store of fuel. — It looks like a lifeless heap, but I often find that my memory, of its own accord, will draw from it material which fills my prayer with life and inflames my thanksgiving after Communion." (The Way 117)
In English-speaking countries, where these games are not played, tarot cards are used primarily for divinatory purposes, usually using specially designed packs.[1] The cards are traced by some occult writers to ancient Egypt or the Kabbalah but there is no documented evidence of such origins or of the usage of tarot for divination before the 18th century.[1]
Well, here is where things might be a little more “out there” and magical. You see, we are all connected to a collective, universal wisdom and our inner wisdom. And when we read the Tarot cards—and connect with our intuition—we can tap into this universal wisdom. It’s a little like connecting in with the collective mind, not just the individual mind. 
Here in the physical world, your family and friends aren’t around you 24/7, but when there’s a crisis or emergency, they’re there when you need them. Well, it’s just the same way with your family and friends on the Other-Side. They often know what’s going on in your life and try to let you know they are there for you, whether it’s for love, guidance, hope, or even inspiration. I’m convinced that few people actually realize just how much energy it takes for those who have passed to lower their vibration and make a connection to this physical plane. As a result, it’s not something they’re going to want to be doing all the time. I believe that they have their own learning to do over there and need time to grow and progress, which is why those who have recently passed often need time before they’re ready to connect to the living.
Weeklyuniverse.com reports that many nonpsychic persons are hired as telephone mediums to work with clients by phone rather than in person. You probably have seen the ads in newspapers or magazines, and sometimes on television or radio: “Call 1-800-PREDICT (or something along those lines) to find out what’s in store for you.” Housewives, unemployed actors, and college students who need a part-time income often fill these roles at a low hourly pay rate.
After her death in the 1980s the medium Doris Stokes was accused of fraud, by author and investigator Ian Wilson. Wilson stated that Mrs Stokes planted specific people in her audience and did prior research into her sitters.[174] Rita Goold a physical medium during the 1980s was accused of fraud, by the psychical researcher Tony Cornell. He claimed she would dress up as the spirits in her séances and would play music during them which provided cover for her to change clothes.[175]
Each one of us has a purpose that we’ve been fulfilling all along in some way unbeknownst to us. We all know that how and what we think effects the lives we are living. Spiritual Psychic Reading & Coaching will help you uncover and change the things that have prevented you from getting more of what you want in life. It is tailored specifically to your needs – personal, business, relationship, health, finance, spiritual psychic, etc.
In recent years, we've seen the emergence of "celebrity mediums," who are people that have become famous simply for being mediums. This, in turn, has led to some fairly intense scrutiny of those who claim to have mediumship ability. People like the "Long Island Medium," Theresa Caputo and Allison DuBois, who inspired the hit television show Medium, have often been criticized for taking advantage of their clients' grief. Still worse, many are accused of being frauds.

Just as in any profession, mediums have specialties and areas of expertise. Unlike Allison Dubois in Medium, I don't work with the police in solving crimes. Or, unlike Melinda Gordon in The Ghost Whisperer, I don't help tormented souls cross over. Over the years, it has become very clear that my job lies in working with souls who have happily crossed over to the other side and, for the most part, are at peace. Sure, they may have regrets or unresolved issues, but they're not haunted or lost. Oftentimes, it's the living that are not at peace. The main goal of your deceased loved ones and spirit guides is to assist you in moving on, free of grief and struggle, so you can fulfill your life lessons and enjoy your time here on earth.
By law, I must state that this is for entertainment purposes only.  You must be 18 years or older to use this service. All guidance is subject to your own interpretation. By purchasing a reading you are agreeing that any information/guidance provided does not constitute or substitute for legal, psychological, financial, medical, or business advice. You claim full responsibility for the choices and/or actions taken based on the content of your reading.
For example, you smell your grandmother’s perfume or your grandfather’s cigar when you are in your car or in your bedroom. At times, you may feel anxious when you walk into certain rooms and then feel better once you leave. Whatever the case may be, if there are ghosts that haven’t crossed over in your life, we will cross them into the light and help them continue on their journey.
The magician Samri Baldwin exposed the tricks of the Davenport brothers in his book The Secrets of Mahatma Land Explained (1895).[90] The medium Swami Laura Horos was convicted of fraud several times and was tried for rape and fraud in London in 1901. She was described by the magician Harry Houdini as "one of the most extraordinary fake mediums and mystery swindlers the world has ever known".[91]
Taking a step back, we should be thankful that we live in an unprecedented time in the history of the Church.  Literacy is taken for granted, but it was not so in earlier times.  Access to books used to be far more limited; in Marsh’s Library in Dublin, for example, books were so rare and expensive that they were chained to desks inside of cages.  Compare that to modern times, where we have some of the greatest works of literature and theology available online at our fingertips.  How blessed we are!  The tradition of the Catholic Church and all the writings of her saints are priceless aids that we need to utilize.  Yes, need!

The Tarot is probably one of the most popularly used tools of divination in the world today. While not as simple as some other methods, like pendulums or tea leaves, the Tarot has drawn people into its magic for centuries. Today, cards are available to purchase in hundreds of different designs. There is a Tarot deck for just about any practitioner, no matter where his or her interests may lie. Whether you’re a fan of Lord of the Rings or baseball, whether you love zombies or are interested in the writings of Jane Austen, you name it, there’s probably a deck out there for you to choose.

The Austrian medium Rudi Schneider was investigated in 1924 by the physicists Stefan Meyer and Karl Przibram. They caught Rudi freeing his arm in a series of séances.[137] Rudi claimed he could levitate objects but according to Harry Price a photograph taken on April 28, 1932 showed that Rudi had managed to free his arm to move a handkerchief from the table.[138] According to Warren Jay Vinton, Schneider was an expert at freeing himself from control in the séance room.[139] Oliver Gatty and Theodore Besterman who tested Schneider concluded that in their tests there was "no good evidence that Rudi Schneider possesses supernormal powers."[140]

The word tarot is derived from the Italian word tarocchi, which has no known etymology. There are many theories regarding its origin. It may be derived from the name of an Italian river, the Taro. Or perhaps it is of Arabic origin, as playing cards originated in the Middle East, becoming common in Europe by the year 1377 C.E. 18th century occultists claimed the name Tarot came from the conjunction of two Egyptian words meaning “royal road,” which indicated that the tarot was the path to wisdom.
Not all psychics are mediums, but all mediums are psychic. A psychic uses psychic skills to read the energies of people (spirits incarnate as human) within the earthly realm. A spiritual medium uses psychical skills to read the energies of spirits within the spirit world. A medium however, is psychic too and this can present a problem. When a client visits, you can pick up on their emotional energies, thoughts and expectations and this can effect the reading you give. You must learn to filter these out through practicing on many people first. You must learn through experience when you're picking up psychic energies or those of spirit. It's hard to describe skills such as these and they must learned within a mediumistic circle or similar group, explained shortly. Ask your client to close their eyes and relax for a few moments before you begin a session. Remind them to be free of expectations so that you do not pick up on them psychically.
In September 1878 the British medium Charles Williams and his fellow-medium at the time, A. Rita, were detected in trickery at Amsterdam. During the séance a materialized spirit was seized and found to be Rita and a bottle of phosphorus oil, muslin and a false beard were found amongst the two mediums.[82] In 1882 C. E. Wood was exposed in a séance in Peterborough. Her Indian spirit control "Pocka" was found to be the medium on her knees, covered in muslin.[83]
In 1781, a French Freemason (and former Protestant minister) named Antoine Court de Gebelin published a complex analysis of the Tarot, in which he revealed that the symbolism in the Tarot was in fact derived from the esoteric secrets of Egyptian priests. De Gebelin went on to explain that this ancient occult knowledge had been carried to Rome and revealed to the Catholic Church and the popes, who desperately wanted to keep this arcane knowledge secret. In his essay, the chapter on Tarot meanings explains the detailed symbolism of Tarot artwork and connects it to the legends of Isis, Osiris and other Egyptian gods.

You can find the psychics on various online websites who can offer Tarot Card readings, Palm readings, numerology readings, astrological (birth chart) readings etc. and also help you with issues related to relationships, career or personal life. However, they are generally expensive. I find that local psychics and sensitives ask a more reasonable hourly rate. Because they are in the room with you, you get a more personal relationship as well.
Jump up ^ M. Lamar Keene. (1997). The Psychic Mafia. Prometheus Books. p 122. ISBN 978-1-57392-161-9 "A medium still riding high in England is Leslie Flint, famed as an exponent of direct voice. William Rauscher and Allen Spraggett, who attended a sitting Flint held in 1970 in New York, said that it was the most abysmal flop of any seance they had endured. All the spirit voices sounded exactly like the medium and displayed an incredible ignorance of nearly everything pertaining to the sitters. The "mediumship " was second-rate ventriloquism."
Sometimes I may even come up with a word or saying in their language that I’ve never spoken before. One time I did a reading for a woman who was from Romania. Her mom came through, and she’d never spoken English in her life. When she connected with me, it was all in pictures and symbols. I wasn’t remotely surprised to find out that her mom was an artist and was a visual person. It was as if these pictures and symbols had words attached to them.
wow, this is amazing. I have learnt a lot from reading this, I am a Pyschic Medium and I am trying to develop more. You have written a very inspiration blog and i am saving this page as a favourites of mine to always reflect on. You have a kind and calming nature to all around you. I can certainly relate to most of the messages, and I know understand that It isn’t about me, and i love the quote ” I define my job as giving a voice to those in spirit”. Thank you.
Playing cards first entered Europe in the late 14th century, most likely from Mamluk Egypt, with suits of Batons or Polo sticks (commonly known as Wands by those practicing occult or divinatory tarot), Coins (commonly known as disks, or pentacles in occult or divinatory tarot), Swords, and Cups. These suits were very similar to modern tarot divination decks and are still used in traditional Italian, Spanish and Portuguese playing card decks.[5]
Because the earliest tarot cards were hand-painted, the number of the decks produced is thought to have been small. It was only after the invention of the printing press that mass production of cards became possible. The expansion of tarot outside of Italy, first to France and Switzerland, occurred during the Italian Wars. The most important tarot pattern used in these two countries was the Tarot of Marseilles of Milanese origin.[1]
In contrast, the meanings in other decks are particularly difficult to decipher, like the infamous Thoth tarot developed by Aleister Crowley, notorious for his involvement with various cults and experimentation with recreational drugs and so-called “sex magick.” Completed in 1943, the Thoth deck was illustrated by Lady Frieda Harris and incorporated a range of occult and scientific symbols, inspiring many modern decks. As Wolf explains, “with the rise of the divination market in the 20th century, more liberties were taken, and the imagery evolved into increasingly personal artistic statements, both in content and style of execution.”
Additional Tarot Definitions are still available. For those of you who have studied tarot yourself or are simply after further detailed analysis of each card. The wonderful soul Avia Venefica from Tarot Teachings has graciously donated her interpretations. All brought to life by the exquisite tarot cards provided by Aquatic Tarot and Ciro Marchetti

The seven Glass family children have all been prodigies on the radio show "It's a Wise Child," but now the youngest, Franny, has returned from college to the family apartment in Manhattan and taken to her bed in a kind of nervous breakdown, sick of the world and unceasingly muttering a Jesus prayer. This is especially disconcerting because Franny and her next oldest brother, Zooey, are not only versed in all of the learning of the West, but have also been introduced to Eastern wisdom by their two oldest brothers, Seymour and Buddy. Salinger brings numerous key insights from Eastern wisdom into the heart of the American novel, and takes us on a spiritual journey in which the worth of all learning is called into question. Like Dostoevsky, Salinger risks everything. We discover with Franny that the answer she was looking for was right under her nose, and therefore close to her heart.
Speaking of readings, the first thing to know is that there actually are two different types of Tarot readings: question readings and open readings. In question readings, you are addressing a specific question. Tarot is not intended to answer specific yes or no questions. Most say it also shouldn't be used to make decisions, but instead should be used as a guide to help you make the decision yourself. For this reason, the way a question is stated is very important. Tarot reader and teacher Joan Bunning gives this advice:

The greatest gift you can give to me and to all is to remember who you are, BE who you are, and assist others to BE the same. That is the most beautiful gift of love you can honour me with. My life is lived in the inspired passion of creating through music, prose, & words of wisdom, then to give such creations to all. The purpose of which is to touch lives in beautiful ways and to help them to R.E.S.T. or to Remember,Embrace, and Soulfully Treasure the Love and Light you are and we all are. These channelings and use of my gifts represent a life dedicated to expressing thoughts, images, & feelings that connect us all as we are all One. Such gifts are freely given. If you desire to in turn bring gift of gratitude for such a gift bestowed upon you, I will be humbly honoured and grateful for your having touched my life in return. If you so choose, you can provide a love offering in exchange


The Tarot is probably one of the most popularly used tools of divination in the world today. While not as simple as some other methods, like pendulums or tea leaves, the Tarot has drawn people into its magic for centuries. Today, cards are available to purchase in hundreds of different designs. There is a Tarot deck for just about any practitioner, no matter where his or her interests may lie. Whether you’re a fan of Lord of the Rings or baseball, whether you love zombies or are interested in the writings of Jane Austen, you name it, there’s probably a deck out there for you to choose.
The Christian spiritual life is a journey that doesn’t exist in a vacuum. Christianity requires a community to exist in and teachers from whom to learn the faith, and features a cloud of witnesses cheering us on (Heb 12:1).  The Holy Spirit animates the Church and, among other things, gives her the gifts of knowledge, wisdom, understanding, fortitude, good counsel, and fear of the Lord, piety.  We have an obligation to build on those gifts sealed in us at our confirmation: and one of the most effective ways is spiritual reading.  By reading good spiritual books, we can build on each of those seven gifts of the Holy Spirit.  In addition, we can come to know the saints better, sit at their feet, and learn from their writings.
'Experienced Spirit Mediums'. Experienced? What is there to demonstrate the experience? 'Medium'? I was 'painting' with morality - as I always do. Not also true for mediums - is it? 'Spirit'? What sort of 'spirit' is common to all 'mediums'? Is there a 'spirit' common to all 'mediums'? If so, what is it? For example, I'm not sure the 'spirit' of a 'medium' in Bristol would be identical to the 'spirit' of a 'medium' in, say, Liverpool. Is that, for example, what presents the controversy? But I welcome the research into 'spirit' brains. Indeed, they were psychographed.

Through Guided Imagery, Meditation, Theta and Delta wave pattern healing, and Spiritual Guidance, I assist souls to awareness of where these energetic cyclical patterns origination is and how to transform it within this dimension and within all of their life experiences in all dimensions, so that one can remember, embrace, and treasure the all inclusive inner wisdom of our soul and of our Soul Life Purpose for this Life Experience clearing the pathway to the love and light you are.

In recent years, we've seen the emergence of "celebrity mediums," who are people that have become famous simply for being mediums. This, in turn, has led to some fairly intense scrutiny of those who claim to have mediumship ability. People like the "Long Island Medium," Theresa Caputo and Allison DuBois, who inspired the hit television show Medium, have often been criticized for taking advantage of their clients' grief. Still worse, many are accused of being frauds.
The original purpose of tarot cards was to play games. A very cursory explanation of rules for a tarot-like deck is given in a manuscript by Martiano da Tortona before 1425. Vague descriptions of game play or game terminology follow for the next two centuries until the earliest known complete description of rules for a French variant in 1637.[11] The game of tarot has many regional variations. Tarocchini has survived in Bologna and there are still others played in Piedmont and Sicily, but in Italy the game is generally less popular than elsewhere.
Many 19th century mediums were discovered to be engaged in fraud.[61] While advocates of mediumship claim that their experiences are genuine, the Encyclopædia Britannica article on spiritualism notes in reference to a case in the 19th century that "...one by one, the Spiritualist mediums were discovered to be engaged in fraud, sometimes employing the techniques of stage magicians in their attempts to convince people of their clairvoyant powers." The article also notes that "the exposure of widespread fraud within the spiritualist movement severely damaged its reputation and pushed it to the fringes of society in the United States."[62]
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