The trance medium Leonora Piper was investigated by psychical researchers and psychologists in the late 19th and early 20th century. In an experiment to test if Piper's "spirit" controls were purely fictitious the psychologist G. Stanley Hall invented a niece called Bessie Beals and asked Piper's 'control' to get in touch with it. Bessie appeared, answered questions and accepted Hall as her uncle.[98] The psychologist Joseph Jastrow wrote that Piper pretended to be controlled by spirits and fell into simple and logical traps from her comments.[99] Science writer Martin Gardner concluded Piper was a cold reader that would "fish" for information from her séance sitters.[100] The physiologist Ivor Lloyd Tuckett who examined Piper's mediumship in detail wrote it could be explained by "muscle-reading, fishing, guessing, hints obtained in the sitting, knowledge surreptitiously obtained, knowledge acquired in the interval between sittings and lastly, facts already within Mrs. Piper's knowledge."[101]
In a reading, for instance, if you are skeptical, the messages might not be quite as clear as they could be if you were more open-minded. If you are fearful or angry, this low mental energy could inhibit the clarity of the messages. If you are on medication or abusing drugs or alcohol, your mental and emotional clarity could also affect the clarity of the messages.
For those who prefer, a reading may be recorded and mailed or emailed to you free from making a lengthy phone call. This too, is also popular with my overseas friends. Taped readings are free from being interactive, but they are scheduled for a particular moment in earth dimensional time, and you are asked to direct energy to the session in your meditation on that gifted moment and any questions you may have for spirit as well. Recorded sessions and readings include e-mail follow-up.

A very large part is played by fraud in spiritualistic practices, both in the physical and psychical, or automatic, phenomena, but especially in the former. The frequency with which mediums have been convicted of fraud has, indeed, induced many people to abandon the study of psychical research, judging the whole bulk of the phenomena to be fraudulently produced.[55]

It is most likely connected to a previous life in which there is a lesson that must be learned and overcome. Are you ever drawn to something that you can’t explain? A country? A profession? A life mission? These may be connected to a past life. We can help you understand your past so you can move forward with a renewed passion and understanding of your life’s purpose.
The Burning Question reading is for times when you have a question that needs to be answered immediately—a burning question, if you will. A card symbolizing the question is placed at the center of the spread with the remaining six cards placed around it, suggesting the shape of a flame as it clings onto an object. Spread created by veteran tarot reader Laura Mead-Desmet.