A great starting book in this area is Ralph Martin’s The Fulfillment of All Desire. He makes the case for the Catholic faith in an accessible way—relying heavily on the writings of the spiritual masters of our tradition.  Another profitable path to pursue is reading biographies of Jesus Christ.  They deepen our understanding of Scripture, the Mass, and develop our personal relationship with Him.  Pope Benedict XVI recently wrote a three-book series entitled Jesus of Nazareth.  Although it has some theological insights that might challenge a reader unschooled in theology, he has many profound reflections that would be valuable to anyone who read it.  Fulton Sheen, Frank Sheed, and Romano Guardini also wrote excellent works on the life of Jesus.
The suit of cups rules over all that is associated with emotions, the unconscious, creativity, and intuition. They frequently talk about relationships, whether romantic or otherwise, and one's imagination and inner world. They are associated with the element of water, which becomes a frequent visual theme within this suit. At their worst, the cups suit is fret with uncontrolled feelings, fantasy, and a disconnect with one's inner voice.
A reading can help you say those last words to your loved one that you never got to say. A reading can give you insight into the path that lies ahead of you and help you open your eyes to see the endless possibilities that are at your feet. A reading can help you find peace in your heart on a mind, body, and soul level and guide you through certain issues in your life. It can help you understand your life purpose and why certain patterns keep repeating themselves. A reading can help your relationships by clearing the lines of communication and bringing you to an understanding from a point of view that you may have never seen before. And finally, a reading can give you answers you have always longed to find out such as your life purpose and why certain events happened in your life.
A former skeptic & private investigator, Bob Olson has been an Afterlife Investigator & Psychic Medium Researcher since 1999. In his search for evidence of the afterlife, Bob has tested hundreds of psychics, mediums & other afterlife-related practitioners. Bob is the host of AFTERLIFE TV, founder of BEST PSYCHIC DIRECTORY and BEST PSYCHIC MEDIUMS, and offers his PSYCHIC MEDIUM WORKSHOP to help psychics and mediums improve their abilities and business. Visit Bob on AFTERLIFE TV's FACEBOOK page & on TWITTER. And don't miss Bob's new book titled ANSWERS ABOUT THE AFTERLIFE.
Playing cards, imported into Europe from Egypt, consisted of four suits similar to the ones we still see in tarot today: cups, swords, wands (or staves) and coins. As early as 1227 C.E., symbolic meaning was attributed to certain cards, some of which began to take on names such as “The Sun” and “The Moon,” etc. This attachment of symbolism to the cards heralded the development of the trumps. Occultists suggest that this evolution of the tarot coincides so closely with the rise of both the Kabbalah and the Inquisition that the symbolism entrenched in the tarot is really the hidden remnants of Pagan Europe struggling to survive.
The biblical basis is St. Paul's advice "Attend to reading" (1 Tim 4:13) which meant that Timothy his disciple should "apply to the reading of holy books, not in a passing way and for a short time, but regularly and for a considerable time," said St. Alphonsus Liguori, Doctor of the Catholic Church on Moral theology. St. Bernard of Clairvaux said that "spiritual reading and prayer are the arms by which hell is conquered and paradise won."
The greatest gift you can give to me and to all is to remember who you are, BE who you are, and assist others to BE the same. That is the most beautiful gift of love you can honour me with. My life is lived in the inspired passion of creating through music, prose, & words of wisdom, then to give such creations to all. The purpose of which is to touch lives in beautiful ways and to help them to R.E.S.T. or to Remember,Embrace, and Soulfully Treasure the Love and Light you are and we all are. These channelings and use of my gifts represent a life dedicated to expressing thoughts, images, & feelings that connect us all as we are all One. Such gifts are freely given. If you desire to in turn bring gift of gratitude for such a gift bestowed upon you, I will be humbly honoured and grateful for your having touched my life in return. If you so choose, you can provide a love offering in exchange
A psychic medium is someone who claims to have or is believed to have extrasensory capabilities that enable the person to perceive and interpret paranormal forces. Some experts believe that everyone has a certain amount of psychic power, sometimes called a “sixth sense,” that is really an intensive form of intuitive observation, according to psychics.co.uk. A psychic medium reading is a session during which the medium, or “reader,” analyzes a person’s “aura” (electric and magnetic energy surrounding each person) to explain a set of circumstances or offer a reasonable prognosis of events that may occur in the future. Many people claim to be an accurate psychic medium, but not all have paranormal abilities. The following information can help you avoid being taken advantage of by an imposter and perhaps lead you to someone who is an authentic psychic medium.

Jump up ^ Paul Kurtz. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-87975-300-9 "Florence Cook was caught cheating not only before her séances with Crookes but also afterward. Furthermore, she learned her trade from the mediums Frank Herne and Charles Williams, who were notorious for their cheating." Also see M. Lamar Keene. (1997). The Psychic Mafia. Prometheus Books. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-57392-161-9 "The most famous of materialization mediums, Florence Cook – though she managed to convince a scientist, Sir William Crookes, that she was genuine – was repeatedly exposed in fraud. Florence had been trained in the arts of the séance by Frank Herne, a well-known physical medium whose materializations were grabbed on more than one occasion and found to be the medium himself."
Over time, many great thinkers have added to the deeper understanding of the Tarot cards. Carl Jung connected the symbology of the trumps to archetypes, concluding that the tarot might play an important role in psychoanalysis. The Hero’s Journey discussed by Joseph Campbell laid the foundation for the Journey of the Fool, who jumps heedlessly off a cliff only to come full circle into the position of magician. The archetypal symbols in each card tell a story, and therefore clue the reader into what influences are appearing in the querent’s own life.
This beautiful little jewel of a novel relates the life story of a man born into a wealthy Brahmin family in India in the time of Buddha. Siddhartha leaves his family as a young man and, along with his pal Govinda, heads to the forest to join a group of wandering ascetics in search of the meaning of life. The book is divided into three parts: Siddhartha as ascetic, as sensualist, and finally as ferryman on the river. There, under the tutelage of an old, unlettered wise man, Vasudeva, Siddhartha, with his fierce honesty, tries to find his salvation. Hesse struggles to find the words to convey experiences of bliss and transcendence which go beyond where language can travel. At one point, Siddhartha meets Buddha himself and, in a beautiful scene, tells Buddha that although he knows Buddha has found the answer, Siddhartha must seek it on his own—just as Buddha did. In the extremely moving conclusion, Siddhartha realizes his original aim by reaching a state of enlightenment and compassion for all.
Other good starting points in studying the intellectual side of the faith are Frank Sheed’s Theology for Beginners and the Catechism of the Catholic Church.  The Catechism is probably thought of more as a reference book, and it certainly is useful for that—but it also contains a tremendous amount of spiritual wisdom.  In pondering the mysteries of our faith, we can better make connections between what the Church teaches and why the Church teaches it. 
After her death in the 1980s the medium Doris Stokes was accused of fraud, by author and investigator Ian Wilson. Wilson stated that Mrs Stokes planted specific people in her audience and did prior research into her sitters.[174] Rita Goold a physical medium during the 1980s was accused of fraud, by the psychical researcher Tony Cornell. He claimed she would dress up as the spirits in her séances and would play music during them which provided cover for her to change clothes.[175]
Another important distinction is that while psychic readings often focus on predicting future events, mediums primarily tune into past and present issues. It's my opinion that predicting the future, while sometimes helpful, runs the risk of disempowering people. Always remember that you do have a say in how your future unfolds. Despite what any psychic or medium may "see" in your future, it is important to remember you were given the gift of free will when you came into this world, and at any moment in time you can absolutely redirect your course and create the life you want by changing your thoughts and actions. Psychic information is often just insight into what potentially could happen based on the road you are currently traveling—and it should be used only as a guideline to help you make the best choices for yourself.
Scientists who study anomalistic psychology consider mediumship to be the result of fraud and psychological factors. Research from psychology for over a hundred years suggests that where there is not fraud, mediumship and Spiritualist practices can be explained by hypnotism, magical thinking and suggestion.[41][42] Trance mediumship, which according to Spiritualists is caused by discarnate spirits speaking through the medium, can be explained by dissociative identity disorder.[43]

Some people ask if I, much like a doctor, chose this specialty as my service. On a basic human level, the answer is no...it chose me. On a soul level, though, I am certain this is what I signed up to do in this lifetime. My responsibility lies in simply acknowledging my "gift" and what comes naturally for me, and embracing the calling to serve as a messenger for Spirit.
Paired with an understanding of what's happening in the stars, tarot cards can reveal that extra bit of magic that's key to understanding the big picture. Tarot decks vary, widely, and it's our goal to bring you the best in modern and classic interpretations of the tarot major arcana. Whether you are just beginning to experiment or a veteran of tarot, meaning can be found in the most unexpected places. And, if you want to go deeper, check out an in-depth tarot reading from one of our experts.
In 2013 Rose Marks and members of her family were convicted of fraud for a series of crimes spanning 20 years entailing between $20 and $45 million. They told vulnerable clients that to solve their problems they had to give the purported psychics money and valuables. Marks and family promised to return the cash and goods after "cleansing" them. Prosecutors established they had no intent to return the property.[196][197][198]
Absolutely not! I’ve had sittings myself with other mediums, and some people whom I was close to here haven’t come through for me. I believe they have their own lives over there, and often they’re off doing their own thing. Maybe some choose to progress quickly and further, and while they will always love you, they’re no longer attached to this plane of existence. You could be getting signs from them, and you may not even recognize the signs and signals they’re sending. In the Spirit World, they don’t measure time as we do here, so they may still come through for you at a later date, or they may come through when you really need it.
Spend time in meditation to contemplate the lesson the Universe is trying to get you to completely understand by having you experience this pain or frustration, bring forth the Light and the power of your Higher Self and ask for wisdom in moving beyond the situation. You will need to infuse the vibrations of Love and Forgiveness in order to really clear this experience from your energy field. Spiritual guidance will help you to see some of these situations and offer you solutions to clearing and moving onward to a more positive future destiny.
Sometimes I may even come up with a word or saying in their language that I’ve never spoken before. One time I did a reading for a woman who was from Romania. Her mom came through, and she’d never spoken English in her life. When she connected with me, it was all in pictures and symbols. I wasn’t remotely surprised to find out that her mom was an artist and was a visual person. It was as if these pictures and symbols had words attached to them.
King Saul of Israel sought counsel from a medium called the Witch of Endor. The armies of Israel were about to be attacked by the Philistines. Saul was in rebellion against God and in desperation sought the services of the spiritist. "So Saul disguised himself and put on other clothes, and he went, and two men with him; and they came to the woman by night. And he said, “Please conduct a séance for me, and bring up for me the one I shall name to you.” (1 Samuel 28:8 NKJV). Saul then asked the medium to conjure up the spirit of the deceased prophet Samuel, to ask his counsel regarding the pending Philistine attack. "And the king said to her, 'Do not be afraid. What did you see?' And the woman said to Saul, 'I saw a spirit ascending out of the earth.' So he said to her, 'What is his form?' And she said, 'An old man is coming up, and he is covered with a mantle.' And Saul perceived that it was Samuel, and he stooped with his face to the ground and bowed down.'" (1 Samuel 28:13-14. NKJV)

I somehow got convinced to have a psychic reading with Adriana on Newbury St. I was walking down the road minding my own business and she pulled me aside and said something like, "You're at a crossroads and I see something about career in your future." Well, that's pretty non-specific, but I was intrigued because I've been plagued by work issues and feeling like I need to make a change.
The researchers speculate that maybe as frontal lobe activity decreases, "the areas of the brain that support mediumistic writing are further disinhibited (similar to alcohol or drug use) so that the overall complexity can increase." In a similar manner, they say, improvisational music performance is associated with lower levels of frontal lobe activity which allows for more creative activity.
The British medium Francis Ward Monck was investigated by psychical researchers and discovered to be a fraud. On November 3, 1876 during the séance a sitter demanded that Monck be searched. Monck ran from the room, locked himself in another room and escaped out of a window. A pair of stuffed gloves was found in his room, as well as cheesecloth, reaching rods and other fraudulent devices in his luggage.[77] After a trial Monck was convicted for his fraudulent mediumship and was sentenced to three months in prison.[78]
Discover the Advice You Are Searching For Keen also has many psychic reading options outside of spiritual healing readers. If you have questions about your love life or relationships, you can get a love reading from a psychic on Keen. If you are interested in knowing your fortune through tarot, Keen has many online tarot readers who are proven experts at this medium. If you wish for an astrology reading, the Keen platform hosts astrologers who specialize in subjects such as Vedic astrology, Mayan astrology, and Chinese astrology amongst others. No matter what you're looking for, Keen.com can get you in touch with specialists in all of these very diverse and enlightening subjects.
A Medium is the interpreter that spirits talk through. Mediumship is a process of communication between a Medium (a physical body) on the earth plane and a discarnate (an entity without a physical body). A Medium is said to be sensitive to vibrations from the spirit world, enabling them to communicate with discarnate entities - including angels and guides.
A great starting book in this area is Ralph Martin’s The Fulfillment of All Desire. He makes the case for the Catholic faith in an accessible way—relying heavily on the writings of the spiritual masters of our tradition.  Another profitable path to pursue is reading biographies of Jesus Christ.  They deepen our understanding of Scripture, the Mass, and develop our personal relationship with Him.  Pope Benedict XVI recently wrote a three-book series entitled Jesus of Nazareth.  Although it has some theological insights that might challenge a reader unschooled in theology, he has many profound reflections that would be valuable to anyone who read it.  Fulton Sheen, Frank Sheed, and Romano Guardini also wrote excellent works on the life of Jesus.
By law, I must state that this is for entertainment purposes only.  You must be 18 years or older to use this service. All guidance is subject to your own interpretation. By purchasing a reading you are agreeing that any information/guidance provided does not constitute or substitute for legal, psychological, financial, medical, or business advice. You claim full responsibility for the choices and/or actions taken based on the content of your reading.

The biblical basis of this practice is St. Paul's advice to his disciple Timothy whom he appointed bishop. St. Paul told him to "Attend to reading." The word "attend" an allusion to the many other concerns that a bishop has to attend to. By this, according to St. Alphonsus Liguori, Doctor of the Church on Moral theology, the Apostle Paul "wished him to apply to the reading of holy books, not in a passing way and for a short time, but regularly and for a considerable time."
You need to work with the cards to become familiar with them but none of us can be totally objective as we all have blind spots. Consult with an experienced professional who can be trusted. Modern serious authentic and ethical tarot readers are not “fortune tellers” or mind readers. Real tarot readings become a therapeutic process for gaining valuable insights. A good tarot reading will affirm your own intuition and opens up more questions and options as part of a process, so be discerning when it comes to choosing a reader.
Some people ask if I, much like a doctor, chose this specialty as my service. On a basic human level, the answer is no...it chose me. On a soul level, though, I am certain this is what I signed up to do in this lifetime. My responsibility lies in simply acknowledging my "gift" and what comes naturally for me, and embracing the calling to serve as a messenger for Spirit.
The Vampire Tarot Introduction Tarot allows us to change our attitudes, to center our minds, and to distinguish the positive from the negative. Tarot enlightens us about the dark and light parts of our personalities, and it has advanced toward solutions to the various matters in question in our lives. Each card has a message, and guides us in decision-making process. Tarot highlights the essential elements of an instance, but final decisions ultimately belong us.
The British journalist Ruth Brandon published the book The Spiritualists (1983) which exposed the fraud of the Victorian mediums.[5] The book received positive reviews and has been influential to skeptics of spiritualism.[176] The British apport medium Paul McElhoney was exposed as a fraud during a séance in Osset, Yorkshire in 1983. The tape recorder that McElhoney took to his séances was investigated and a black tape was discovered bound around the battery compartment and inside carnation flowers were found as well as a key-ring torch and other objects.[177]
In 1781, a French Freemason (and former Protestant minister) named Antoine Court de Gebelin published a complex analysis of the Tarot, in which he revealed that the symbolism in the Tarot was in fact derived from the esoteric secrets of Egyptian priests. De Gebelin went on to explain that this ancient occult knowledge had been carried to Rome and revealed to the Catholic Church and the popes, who desperately wanted to keep this arcane knowledge secret. In his essay, the chapter on Tarot meanings explains the detailed symbolism of Tarot artwork and connects it to the legends of Isis, Osiris and other Egyptian gods.

The beauty of the wealth of knowledge available to us is there is often a book for whatever need we may have.  If we encounter questions about the faith, we have resources to develop our intellectual knowledge.  The Catholic blogosphere has a myriad of “Catholic mom” sites where women mutually support each other in their vocations as wives and mothers.  There are books too numerous to list that have come from Catholic authors on parenting and authentic masculinity and femininity. 

“Etteilla was one of the people who actually made divination so esoteric,” says Matthews. “He created a deck that incorporated all the things from Court de Gébelin and his book ‘Le Monde Primitif’ [‘The Primitive World’], which suggested an Egyptian origin for the tarot and all sorts of arcane things.” Matthews makes a distinction between the tarot’s abstract interpretations and the straightforward “cartomantic” reading style that thrived during the 16th and 17th centuries, prior to Etteilla.


All our Advisors provide spiritual psychic readings, as there are spiritual elements in all psychic endeavors. Angel readings access the wisdom of spirit guides and other spiritual beings. Cartomancy and Tarot card readings rely on a spiritual psychic’s understanding of how the symbols in the cards relate to your situation. Past life readings follow your spirit through past incarnations. In other words, you can be sure that every Advisor you contact at Psychic Source is a gifted spiritual psychic who can provide a wide variety of spiritual readings.
The beauty of the wealth of knowledge available to us is there is often a book for whatever need we may have.  If we encounter questions about the faith, we have resources to develop our intellectual knowledge.  The Catholic blogosphere has a myriad of “Catholic mom” sites where women mutually support each other in their vocations as wives and mothers.  There are books too numerous to list that have come from Catholic authors on parenting and authentic masculinity and femininity. 

The James Van Praagh School of Mystical Arts is here to empower and awaken you. Founded by New York Times bestselling author and internationally acclaimed spiritual teacher James Van Praagh, the James Van Praagh School of Mystical Arts offers a variety of innovative online courses and spiritual trainings that allow you to create your most fulfilling life, live your soul’s purpose, and share your gifts with the world. The school also offers one of the most in-depth and well-regarded psychic and mediumship certification programs available today. Ultimately, the James Van Praagh School of Mystical Arts is more than a learning experience. It’s a place of like-minded souls where you’re empowered to shine

Discover the Advice You Are Searching For Keen also has many psychic reading options outside of spiritual healing readers. If you have questions about your love life or relationships, you can get a love reading from a psychic on Keen. If you are interested in knowing your fortune through tarot, Keen has many online tarot readers who are proven experts at this medium. If you wish for an astrology reading, the Keen platform hosts astrologers who specialize in subjects such as Vedic astrology, Mayan astrology, and Chinese astrology amongst others. No matter what you're looking for, Keen.com can get you in touch with specialists in all of these very diverse and enlightening subjects.
Read slowly and with attention. "'Nourish your soul,' says St. Augustine, 'with divine lectures.'" To be nourished, he said, one must chew and well and ponder well, and apply the teachings to oneself. "And when what you have read has made a lively impression on you, St. Ephrem counsels you to read it a second time...Besides, when you receive any special light in reading, or any instruction that penetrates the heart, it will be very useful to stop, and to raise the mind to God by making a good resolution, or a good act, or a fervent prayer. St. Bernard says, that it is useful then to interrupt the reading, and to offer a prayer, and to continue to pray as long as the lively impression lasts."
Why? You may well ask. Simple: it’s because I have a life here, and I need to be able to enjoy it without feeling as if I’m constantly on duty. In my workshops, I teach that we’re spiritual beings as well as physical beings, and it’s so important that we honor all of ourselves. It takes a really strong spirit to get my attention when I’m not working, as it needs to literally break through my shield, my “off switch,” but on those rare occasions when one does, I’ve now learned that I still must act on it every time.

I got a psychic slap the morning of/before the Dallas police shooting. “El Centro” , the words, came into my head. No sound, no vision, etc. I knew of the school 30+ years ago when my boyfriend, who passed, attended a few seminars. I ran through my head a series questions but nothing made sense. Later that night on tv i heard the gunman was holed up there. I couldn’t breathe. This was my wake up.


Ray Hyman discovered many methodological errors with Schwartz's research including; "Inappropriate control comparisons", "Failure to use double-blind procedures", "Creating non-falsifiable outcomes by reinterpreting failures as successes" and "Failure to independently check on facts the sitters endorsed as true". Hyman wrote "Even if the research program were not compromised by these defects, the claims being made would require replication by independent investigators." Hyman criticizes Schwartz's decision to publish his results without gathering "evidence for their hypothesis that would meet generally accepted scientific criteria... they have lost credibility."[191]
Each Reading will assist you with the choices that you are choosing in and for your life's path and Soul Life Purpose, recognizing your inner wisdom, and identifying and assisting with the energetic cyclical patterns, axioms, e~motions, and illusions that we choose that are being invited to be shifted which will gift you with the Absoulute Love, Inner Peace, Bliss, Spiritual Oneness, and all that you so desire for your Life Experience. While offering an overview of the soul's path in this Life Experience, each reading also focuses on soul resonance cycle patterns within your Life Experience in the moment and your life choices and why on a soulful resonance that you have chosen these choices with regard to your life and with regard to such matters as relationships, career, geographic location, family and business matters. If you have been asking for clarity about your life path, or would like to connect more deeply with the Spiritual Soul BEing that you are, then this is the reading that will gift you this experience. Many souls have expressed to me receiving major shifts of consciousness and healing during these Spiritual Channeled Soul Readings.
From our personal experience and what has been shared with us, Spirit Guides are souls that have been chosen to guide you throughout your life. Some Guides will remain with you from birth to when you return to the other side. And some Guides come in during specific times in your life – during hardships, releasing blocks, finding a certain path, etc.
The suit of cups rules over all that is associated with emotions, the unconscious, creativity, and intuition. They frequently talk about relationships, whether romantic or otherwise, and one's imagination and inner world. They are associated with the element of water, which becomes a frequent visual theme within this suit. At their worst, the cups suit is fret with uncontrolled feelings, fantasy, and a disconnect with one's inner voice.

So once again, it’s our bereavement or guilt that prevents us from moving on. Rest assured, they’re neither angry nor upset. It may just take a little time before you can even think about meeting someone else, and when you do, that person will never replace the one you loved before. It will be a new experience and a different kind of love; a love they want you to have.


Payment and Cancellation policy: Payment is required at the time your appointment is scheduled. MasterCard, Visa and PayPal are acceptable forms of payment. If needed, your appointment time and date can be rescheduled up to two weeks prior to your appointment time. A $25 cancellation fee applies to all cancellations after the appointment time has been scheduled. No refund will be issued when appointments are cancelled with less than 24 hours’ notice. Missed appointments are subject to full payment of session. 
The original purpose of tarot cards was to play games. A very cursory explanation of rules for a tarot-like deck is given in a manuscript by Martiano da Tortona before 1425. Vague descriptions of game play or game terminology follow for the next two centuries until the earliest known complete description of rules for a French variant in 1637.[11] The game of tarot has many regional variations. Tarocchini has survived in Bologna and there are still others played in Piedmont and Sicily, but in Italy the game is generally less popular than elsewhere.

In English-speaking countries, where these games are not played, tarot cards are used primarily for divinatory purposes, usually using specially designed packs.[1] The cards are traced by some occult writers to ancient Egypt or the Kabbalah but there is no documented evidence of such origins or of the usage of tarot for divination before the 18th century.[1]
Channeling is a growing phenomenon whereby the channeler – often he or she would not describe themselves as psychic – opens a line to another being or group of beings. They have the ability to allow their consciousness to step aside and let their contact speak through them. One of the most well-known is Esther Hicks, who channels a group of entities called Abraham. Esther describes the experience of channeling as "receiving blocks of thought".
If you are considering consulting a psychic medium, check the company’s credentials on its website and look for negative reports or criticism through watchdog organizations. You might want to check with the Better Business Bureau also. A psychic medium reading conducted over the phone can be very frustrating if the medium really isn’t psychic and you aren’t getting reliable answers to your questions.
The program known as “John Holland” is currently playing, and when this program is finished (that is, when I pass away) the program will go back into the hard drive (oversoul), and another program from the hard drive will come forth and play out. So the program that is known as “John Holland,” the personality and all the memories that I lived here in that lifetime, will always be in the oversoul. 
Physical mediumship is defined as manipulation of energies and energy systems by spirits. This type of mediumship is claimed to involve perceptible manifestations, such as loud raps and noises, voices, materialized objects, apports, materialized spirit bodies, or body parts such as hands, legs and feet. The medium is used as a source of power for such spirit manifestations. By some accounts, this was achieved by using the energy or ectoplasm released by a medium, see spirit photography.[26][27] The last physical medium to be tested by a committee from Scientific American was Mina Crandon in 1924.
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